Collection of all Charts

Here is the list of all inter-relational charts for easy reference:



Master Interrelational Chart

Go to top
Energetic System Physical System Polarity and Planetary Ayurveda Homeopathic Acupuncture
Chakra Kosha/Sharira Element Cavity/Moving El Finger (per Vamachara) Body Organ Charge Ruler Zodiac Body Part Fn Phalanx Subdosha Governs Cereal Metals For Planet For Zodiac For Meridian Points for Subdosha Points for Charge
Well/Spring/Sea
Vata/Pitta/Kapha
Crown
Sahasrara

Nadi: Sushhumna
Marma: Adhipati
Points: GV-20, GV-20
-- -- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Third Eye
Ajna

Nadi: Shankhini,
Payasvini, Gandhari,
Pusha, Ida, Pingala,
Marma: Sthapani
Points: GV-16, M-HN-3
-- Head
(Fire)
Thumb
--- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- ---
Throat
Vishuddhi

Nadi: Sarasvati
Marma: Nila, Manya, Amsa
Points: GV-14, CV-23
Kosha: Bliss
Sharira: Causal
Ether / Wood Neck
(Ether)
Btw Thumb & Index
Gall Bladder
  • Judgement
  • Decision making
  • Skeletal System
Liver
  • Planning & Strategy
--- --- --- --- --- Prana,
Sadhaka,
Tarpaka
Reception of all,
Intellect & Memory,
Intelligence
--- --- --- --- --- PC-8, PC-7, CV-17, PC-3 LV-1, GB-44
LV-2, GB-43
LV-8, GB-34
Heart
Anahata

Nadi: Varuna
Marma: Hridaya, Amsaphalaka
Points: GV-10, CV-17
Kosha: Wisdom
Sharira: Astral
Air / Metal
Sanguine
Blood
Chest
(Air)
Index Finger - Jupiter
  • Circulation
  • Respiration
  • Heart
  • Lungs
Lungs
  • Administration
  • Nervous System
Large Intestine
  • Waste Conduction
  • Waste Conveyance
  • Circulation System
Neutral Venus Libra Kidneys Top Udana Speech & Intellect
Self-expression
Oats Copper Cuprum Metallicum Natrum Phosphoricum PC-6 LU-11, LI-1
Positive Mercury Gemini Shoulders Middle Alochaka Vision Millet Mercury Mercurius Vivus Kali Muriaticum LV-3 LU-10, LI-2
Negative Saturn Aquarius Ankles Bottom Bodhaka Taste Corn Lead Plumbum Metallicum Natrum Muriaticum LU-5 LU-5, LI-11
Solar Plexus
Manipura

Nadi: Vishvodhara
Marma: Nabhi, Brihati
Points: GV-6, CV-8
Kosha: Mental
Sharira: Astral
Fire
Choleric
Yellow Bile
Abdominal
(Earth)
Middle Finger - Saturn
  • Digestion
  • Assimilation
  • Stomach
  • Intestines
  • Colon
Heart
  • Blood
  • Blood Vessels
Small Intestine
  • Separate pure from turbid
  • Digestion System
Triple Warmer
  • Lymphatic System
Pericardium

Neutral Mars Aries Head Top Samana Digestion Barley Iron Ferrum Metallicum Kali Phosphorica SI-5 HE-9, PC-9, SI-1, TH-1
Positive Sun Leo Solar Plexus Middle Pachaka Digestion Wheat Gold Aurum Metallicum Magnesia Phosphorica SI-5, CV-8 HE-8, PC-8, SI-2, TH-2
Negative Jupiter Sagittarius Thighs Bottom Kledaka Moistening of food in stomach Rye Tin Stannum Metallicum Silicea ST-36, CV-12 HE-3, PC-3, SI-8, TH-10
Sacral
Swadhisthana

Nadi: Kuhu
Marma: Kukundara, Vitapa
Points: GV-3, CV-6
Kosha: Energy
Sharira: Physical
Astral
Water
Phlegmatic
Phlegm
Pelvic
(Water)
Ring Finger - Sun
  • Creative energy
  • Vital force
  • Genito-urinary
Kidney
  • Water
  • Reproduction
  • Growth
Bladder
  • Storage of fluids/humors
  • Reproduction
Neutral Moon Cancer Chest/Breast Top Vyana Autonomic nervous system
Circulation of all subtances
Rice Silver Argentum Metallicum Calcarea Fluorica CV-17 KD-1, BL-67
Positive Mars Scorpio Generative Middle Bhrajaka Normal pigmentation of skin Barley Iron Ferrum Metallicum Calcarea Sulphuricum LU-7 KD-2, BL-66
Negative Jupiter Pisces Feet Bottom Shleshaka Lubrication of joints Rye Tin Stannum Metallicum Ferrum Phosphoricum TH-2, KD-10 KD-10, BL-40
Root
Muladhara

Nadi: Alambusha
Marma: Guda
Points: GV-1, CV-1
Kosha: Food
Sharira: Physical
Earth
Melancholic
Black Bile
Pelvic
(Water)
Little Finger - Mercury
  • Eliminative
  • Rectum
  • Bladder
Spleen
  • Transformation
  • Transportation
  • Blood
Stomach
  • Receiving & Fermenting
Neutral Saturn Capricorn Knees Top Apana Elimination of all substances Corn Lead Plumbum Metallicum Calcarea Phosphorica BL-35, SP-6, CV-2 SP-1, ST-45
Positive Venus Taurus Neck Middle Ranjaka Blood Oats Copper Cuprum Metallicum Natrum Sulphuricum LV-2 SP-2, ST-44
Negative Mercury Virgo Bowels Bottom Avalambaka Energy in Limbs Millet Mercury Mercurius Vivus Kali Sulphuricum LU-5, ST-36 SP-9, ST-36

Cautions in Therapies because of Planetary Relationships

Go to top
Main Planet Enemy Planets Friendly Planets Neutral Planets
Name Cereal Metal Crystal Homeopathy Foods/Smells Name Cereal Metal Crystal Homeopathy Foods/Smells Name Cereal Metal Crystal Homeopathy Foods/Smells Name Herb Metal Crystal Homeopathy Foods/Smells
Saturn Corn Lead Black Tourmaline,
Coal,
Onyx,
Salt
Plumbum Metallicum Ajwain,
Cypress,
Horsetail,
Tamarind
Sun,
Moon,
Mars
Wheat,
Rice,
Barley
Gold,
Silver,
Iron
Bloodstone,
Citrine,
Diamond,
Moonstone,
Pearl,
Quartz,
Quartz,
Ruby,
Sapphire,
Sunstone,
White Stones,
Yellow Sulfur
Aurum Metallicum,
Argentum Metallicum,
Ferrum Metallicum
Basil,
Black Pepper,
Camphor,
Chamomile,
Cinnamon,
Clove,
Frankincense,
Garlic,
Lotus,
Marigold,
Mustard,
Onion,
Saffron,
Sandalwood,
Water Lily
Mercury,
Venus
Millet,
Oats
Mercury,
Copper
Agate,
Azurite,
Chrysocolla,
Emerald,
Mica,
Opal,
Rose Quartz,
Yellow and Green stones
Mercurius Vivus,
Cuprum Metallicum
Caraway,
Cardamom,
Daisy,
Fennel,
Lavender,
Licorice,
Mint
Jupiter Rye Tin Amethyst,
Lapis Lazuli,
Sugilite
Stannum Metallicum Agrimony,
Dandelion,
Sage
Jupiter Rye Tin Amethyst,
Lapis Lazuli,
Sugilite
Stannum Metallicum Agrimony,
Dandelion,
Sage
Mercury,
Venus
Millet,
Oats
Mercury,
Copper
Agate,
Azurite,
Chrysocolla,
Emerald,
Mica,
Opal,
Rose Quartz,
Yellow and Green stones
Mercurius Vivus,
Cuprum Metallicum
Caraway,
Cardamom,
Daisy,
Fennel,
Lavender,
Licorice,
Mint
Moon,
Mars,
Sun
Rice,
Barley,
Wheat
Silver,
Iron,
Gold
Bloodstone,
Citrine,
Diamond,
Moonstone,
Pearl,
Quartz,
Quartz,
Ruby,
Sapphire,
Sunstone,
White Stones,
Yellow Sulfur
Argentum Metallicum,
Ferrum Metallicum,
Aurum Metallicum
Basil,
Black Pepper,
Camphor,
Chamomile,
Cinnamon,
Clove,
Frankincense,
Garlic,
Lotus,
Marigold,
Mustard,
Onion,
Saffron,
Sandalwood,
Water Lily
Saturn Corn Lead Black Tourmaline,
Coal,
Onyx,
Salt
Plumbum Metallicum Ajwain,
Cypress,
Horsetail,
Tamarind
Mars Barley Iron Bloodstone,
Ruby
Ferrum Metallicum Basil,
Black Pepper,
Garlic,
Mustard,
Onion
Mercury Millet Mercury Agate,
Mica,
Opal,
Yellow and Green stones
Mercurius Vivus Caraway,
Fennel,
Lavender,
Licorice
Sun,
Moon,
Jupiter
Wheat,
Rice,
Rye
Gold,
Silver,
Tin
Amethyst,
Citrine,
Diamond,
Lapis Lazuli,
Moonstone,
Pearl,
Quartz,
Quartz,
Sapphire,
Sugilite,
Sunstone,
White Stones,
Yellow Sulfur
Aurum Metallicum,
Argentum Metallicum,
Stannum Metallicum
Agrimony,
Camphor,
Chamomile,
Cinnamon,
Clove,
Dandelion,
Frankincense,
Lotus,
Marigold,
Saffron,
Sage,
Sandalwood,
Water Lily
Venus,
Saturn
Oats,
Corn
Copper,
Lead
Azurite,
Black Tourmaline,
Chrysocolla,
Coal,
Emerald,
Onyx,
Rose Quartz,
Salt
Cuprum Metallicum,
Plumbum Metallicum
Ajwain,
Cardamom,
Cypress,
Daisy,
Horsetail,
Mint,
Tamarind
Sun Wheat Gold Citrine,
Diamond,
Quartz,
Sunstone,
Yellow Sulfur
Aurum Metallicum Chamomile,
Cinnamon,
Clove,
Frankincense,
Marigold,
Saffron
Saturn,
Venus
Corn,
Oats
Lead,
Copper
Azurite,
Black Tourmaline,
Chrysocolla,
Coal,
Emerald,
Onyx,
Rose Quartz,
Salt
Plumbum Metallicum,
Cuprum Metallicum
Ajwain,
Cardamom,
Cypress,
Daisy,
Horsetail,
Mint,
Tamarind
Moon,
Mars,
Jupiter
Rice,
Barley,
Rye
Silver,
Iron,
Tin
Amethyst,
Bloodstone,
Lapis Lazuli,
Moonstone,
Pearl,
Quartz,
Ruby,
Sapphire,
Sugilite,
White Stones
Argentum Metallicum,
Ferrum Metallicum,
Stannum Metallicum
Agrimony,
Basil,
Black Pepper,
Camphor,
Dandelion,
Garlic,
Lotus,
Mustard,
Onion,
Sage,
Sandalwood,
Water Lily
Mercury Millet Mercury Agate,
Mica,
Opal,
Yellow and Green stones
Mercurius Vivus Caraway,
Fennel,
Lavender,
Licorice
Mercury Millet Mercury Agate,
Mica,
Opal,
Yellow and Green stones
Mercurius Vivus Caraway,
Fennel,
Lavender,
Licorice
Moon Rice Silver Moonstone,
Pearl,
Quartz,
Sapphire,
White Stones
Argentum Metallicum Camphor,
Lotus,
Sandalwood,
Water Lily
Sun,
Venus
Wheat,
Oats
Gold,
Copper
Azurite,
Chrysocolla,
Citrine,
Diamond,
Emerald,
Quartz,
Rose Quartz,
Sunstone,
Yellow Sulfur
Aurum Metallicum,
Cuprum Metallicum
Cardamom,
Chamomile,
Cinnamon,
Clove,
Daisy,
Frankincense,
Marigold,
Mint,
Saffron
Mars,
Jupiter,
Saturn
Barley,
Rye,
Corn
Iron,
Tin,
Lead
Amethyst,
Black Tourmaline,
Bloodstone,
Coal,
Lapis Lazuli,
Onyx,
Ruby,
Salt,
Sugilite
Ferrum Metallicum,
Stannum Metallicum,
Plumbum Metallicum
Agrimony,
Ajwain,
Basil,
Black Pepper,
Cypress,
Dandelion,
Garlic,
Horsetail,
Mustard,
Onion,
Sage,
Tamarind
Venus Oats Copper Azurite,
Chrysocolla,
Emerald,
Rose Quartz
Cuprum Metallicum Cardamom,
Daisy,
Mint
Sun,
Moon
Wheat,
Rice
Gold,
Silver
Citrine,
Diamond,
Moonstone,
Pearl,
Quartz,
Quartz,
Sapphire,
Sunstone,
White Stones,
Yellow Sulfur
Aurum Metallicum,
Argentum Metallicum
Camphor,
Chamomile,
Cinnamon,
Clove,
Frankincense,
Lotus,
Marigold,
Saffron,
Sandalwood,
Water Lily
Mercury,
Saturn
Millet,
Corn
Mercury,
Lead
Agate,
Black Tourmaline,
Coal,
Mica,
Onyx,
Opal,
Salt,
Yellow and Green stones
Mercurius Vivus,
Plumbum Metallicum
Ajwain,
Caraway,
Cypress,
Fennel,
Horsetail,
Lavender,
Licorice,
Tamarind
Mars,
Jupiter
Barley,
Rye
Iron,
Tin
Amethyst,
Bloodstone,
Lapis Lazuli,
Ruby,
Sugilite
Ferrum Metallicum,
Stannum Metallicum
Agrimony,
Basil,
Black Pepper,
Dandelion,
Garlic,
Mustard,
Onion,
Sage
Moon Rice Silver Moonstone,
Pearl,
Quartz,
Sapphire,
White Stones
Argentum Metallicum Camphor,
Lotus,
Sandalwood,
Water Lily
None None None None None None Sun,
Mercury
Wheat,
Millet
Gold,
Mercury
Agate,
Citrine,
Diamond,
Mica,
Opal,
Quartz,
Sunstone,
Yellow and Green stones,
Yellow Sulfur
Aurum Metallicum,
Mercurius Vivus
Caraway,
Chamomile,
Cinnamon,
Clove,
Fennel,
Frankincense,
Lavender,
Licorice,
Marigold,
Saffron
Venus,
Mars,
Saturn,
Jupiter
Oats,
Barley,
Corn,
Rye
Copper,
Iron,
Lead,
Tin
Amethyst,
Azurite,
Black Tourmaline,
Bloodstone,
Chrysocolla,
Coal,
Emerald,
Lapis Lazuli,
Onyx,
Rose Quartz,
Ruby,
Salt,
Sugilite
Cuprum Metallicum,
Ferrum Metallicum,
Plumbum Metallicum,
Stannum Metallicum
Agrimony,
Ajwain,
Basil,
Black Pepper,
Cardamom,
Cypress,
Daisy,
Dandelion,
Garlic,
Horsetail,
Mint,
Mustard,
Onion,
Sage,
Tamarind

Elements

Go to top
Element Role and Senses Body Organs Planet & Zodiac Dosha, Subdosha, and Dhatu Taste and Potency Other Element Roles Actions of Substance Foods
Ether / Wood
Temperament:
Humor:
Direction: West
Color: Black
Mantra: KHAM
Role: Space/Emotion
Sense: Sound
Platonic: Dodecahedron
System: Skin
Physical Organ: Gall Bladder, Liver
Knowledge Organ: Ears
Action Organ: Vocal cords
Finger: Btw Thumb & Index
Planet:
Zodiac:
Dosha: Vaata
Subdosha: Prana, Sadhaka, Tarpaka
Dhatu: Reproductive
Potency:
Taste: Bitter
Ether governed Emotion: Grief
Air governed Movement: Lengthening
Fire governed Function: Sleep
Water governed Liquid: Saliva
Earth governed Solid: Hair
They promote softness, porosity and lightness. N.A
Air / Metal
Temperament: Sanguine
Humor: Blood
Direction: East
Color: Blue
Mantra: YAM
Role: Movement
Sense: Touch
Platonic: Octahedron
System: Muscles/Tendons
Physical Organ: Lungs, Large Intestine
Knowledge Organ: Skin
Action Organ: Hands
Finger: Index Finger
Planet: Jupiter, Mercury
Zodiac: Aquarius, Gemini, Libra
Dosha: Vaata
Subdosha: Udana, Alochaka, Bodhaka
Dhatu: Bone
Potency:
Taste: Pungent, Bitter, Astringent
Ether governed Emotion: Desire
Air governed Movement: Speed
Fire governed Function: Thirst
Water governed Liquid: Sweat
Earth governed Solid: Skin
They promote roughness, aversion, movement, non-sliminess and lightness. Fruits, Nuts, Seeds
Fire
Temperament: Choleric
Humor: Yellow Bile
Direction: South
Color: Red
Mantra: RAM
Role: Energy/Function
Sense: Sight
Platonic: Tetrahedron
System: Circulation
Physical Organ: Heart, Small Intestine, Triple Warmer, Pericardium
Knowledge Organ: Eyes
Action Organ: Feet
Finger: Middle Finger
Planet: Mars, Sun
Zodiac: Sagittarius, Aries, Leo
Dosha: Pitta
Subdosha: Samana, Pachaka, Kledaka
Dhatu: Plasma, Blood Serum, Lymph, Red blood cells
Potency: Hot Potency
Taste: Sour, Salty, Pungent
Ether governed Emotion: Anger
Air governed Movement: Shaking
Fire governed Function: Hunger
Water governed Liquid: Urine
Earth governed Solid: Blood Vessels
They promote combustion, metabolism, lustre, radiance, and color. Grains, Legumes, Sesame seed, Sunflower seed
Water
Temperament: Phlegmatic
Humor: Phlegm
Direction: North
Color: White
Mantra: VAM
Role: Force of Attraction
Sense: Taste
Platonic: Icosahedron
System: Bones
Physical Organ: Kidney, Bladder
Knowledge Organ: Tongue
Action Organ: Genital
Finger: Ring Finger
Planet: Venus, Moon
Zodiac: Pisces, Scorpio, Cancer
Dosha: Pitta, Kapha
Subdosha: Vyana, Bhrajaka, Shleshaka
Dhatu: Bone marrow, Nervous tissue
Potency: Cold Potency
Taste: Sweet, Salty
Ether governed Emotion: Attachment
Air governed Movement: Movement
Fire governed Function: Lustre
Water governed Liquid: Semen/Ovum
Earth governed Solid: Flesh/Fat
They promote stickiness, wet, compactness, moistness, and happiness. Green vegetables, Cucumber, Melons, Squash, Marrow
Earth
Temperament: Melancholic
Humor: Black Bile
Direction: Center
Color: Yellow
Mantra: LAM
Role: Solidity
Sense: Smell
Platonic: Cube
System: Connective
Physical Organ: Spleen, Stomach
Knowledge Organ: Nose
Action Organ: Anus
Finger: Little Finger
Planet: Saturn
Zodiac: Capricorn, Virgo, Taurus
Dosha: Kapha
Subdosha: Apana, Ranjaka, Avalambaka
Dhatu: Muscle, Adipose
Potency: Cold Potency
Taste: Sweet, Sour, Astringent
Ether governed Emotion: Fear
Air governed Movement: Contraction
Fire governed Function: Lazziness
Water governed Liquid: Blood
Earth governed Solid: Bones
They promote plumpness and stability. Root vegetables, Tubers, Herb roots, Taro, Beets, Potato, Carrot, Onion, Garlic, Turnip

Palmistry

Go to top
Mount Name Finger Name Chakra Planet Phalanx/Zodiac Mount Location LifeProcess Movement in Body Finger Responsibility
Mount of Moon
NA NA Moon NA Located below the Mount of Outer Mars, on the base of the palm, little finger side Reproducing Movement of reproduction NA
Mount of Outer Mars
NA NA Mars NA Palm side, between the Mounts of Mercury and Moon Nourishing Movement of speaking NA
Plains of Mars
NA NA Mars NA Located in the center of the palm between the Mounts of Inner Mars and Outer Mars Nourishing Movement of speaking NA
Mount of Venus
Thumb Third Eye Venus
Top   NA
Middle   NA
Bottom   NA
Located at the base of the thumb, below the Mount of Inner Mars and surrounded by the life line Growing Movement of the glands Neuter
Mount of Inner Mars
Btw Thumb & Index Throat Mars
Palm side, between the Mounts of Jupiter and Venus Nourishing Movement of speaking Neuter
Mount of Jupiter
Index Finger Heart Jupiter
Top   Libra
Middle   Gemini
Bottom   Aquarius
Located at the base of the Index and above the Mount of Inner Mars Warming Movement of thinking Circulation, Respiration, Heart, Lungs
Mount of Saturn
Middle Finger Solar Plexus Saturn
Top   Aries
Middle   Leo
Bottom   Sagittarius
Located at the base of the middle finger Breathing Movement into upright posture Digestion, Assimilation, Stomach, Intestines, Colon
Mount of Sun
Ring Finger Sacral Sun
Top   Cancer
Middle   Scorpio
Bottom   Pisces
Located at the base of the ring finger Circulation Movement of the blood Creative energy, Vital force, Genito-urinary
Mount of Mercury
Little Finger Root Mercury
Top   Capricorn
Middle   Taurus
Bottom   Virgo
Located at the base of the little finger above the Mount of Outer Mars Maintaining Movement of the breath Eliminative, Rectum, Bladder

Pulse

Go to top
Subject Hand Subject Organ Subject Controller Subject Dosha Examiner Finger Name Examiner Finger Position Examiner Level Number Examiner Level Name
Left
Small Intestine Separate pure from turbid, Digestion System Vata Index 1st One Superficial (Vikruti: Hollow organs)
Left
Heart Blood, Blood Vessels Vata Index 1st Seven Deep (Prkurti: Solid organs)
Left
Stomach Receiving & Fermenting Pitta Middle 2nd One Superficial (Vikruti: Hollow organs)
Left
Spleen Transformation, Transportation, Blood Pitta Middle 2nd Seven Deep (Prkurti: Solid organs)
Left
Bladder Storage of fluids/humors, Reproduction Kapha Ring 3rd One Superficial (Vikruti: Hollow organs)
Left
Kidney Water, Reproduction, Growth Kapha Ring 3rd Seven Deep (Prkurti: Solid organs)
Right
Large Intestine Waste Conduction, Waste Conveyance, Circulation System Vata Index 1st One Superficial (Vikruti: Hollow organs)
Right
Lungs Administration, Nervous System Vata Index 1st Seven Deep (Prkurti: Solid organs)
Right
Gall Bladder Judgement, Decision making, Skeletal System Pitta Middle 2nd One Superficial (Vikruti: Hollow organs)
Right
Liver Planning & Strategy Pitta Middle 2nd Seven Deep (Prkurti: Solid organs)
Right
Triple Warmer Lymphatic System Kapha Ring 3rd One Superficial (Vikruti: Hollow organs)
Right
Pericardium Kapha Ring 3rd Seven Deep (Prkurti: Solid organs)
 
Level Number Level Name Level Description
One
Superficial (Vikruti: Hollow organs)
Two
Manas Vikruti
Three
Subdosha
Four
Prana, Tejas, Ojas
Five
Dhatus
Six
Manas Prakurti
Seven
Deep (Prkurti: Solid organs)

Platonic Solids

Go to top
Platonic Element Faces Vertices Edges Quality Purpose Description
Dodecahedron Ether 12 20 30 Awareness Plantary Connecting with our own DNA and activation of the same. 3 pentagons meet at 324 degree.
Octahedron Air 8 6 12 Wisdom Disclosure life purpose or mission. 4 triangles meet at 240 degree.
Tetrahedron Fire 4 4 6 Love Being connected to top. 3 triangles meet at 180 degree.
Icosahedron Water 20 12 30 Awareness Cosmic Expansion of cosmic consciousness. 5 triangles meet at 300 degree.
Cube Earth 6 8 12 Will Energy balance, Healing. 3 squares meet at 270 degree.

Colors

Go to top
ColorName Element Description Dinshah Frequency Dinshah Slide Number Opposite Color Name
Red Fire Not available 397.3 818, 828 Blue
Orange Not available 430.8 809, 828 Indigo
Yellow Earth Not available 464.4 809 Violet
Green Not available 531.5 871
Blue Air Not available 598.6 859, 866 Red
Purple Not available 565.0 (Reverse Polarity) 832, 866 Scarlet
Black Ether Not available
Silver Not available
White Water Not available
Lemon Not available 497.9 809, 871 Turquoise
Turquoise Not available 565.0 861, 871 Lemon
Indigo Not available 632.1 828, 859, 866 Orange
Violet Not available 665.7 832, 859, 866 Yellow
Magenta Not available 531.5 (Reverse Polarity) 818, 828, 866
Scarlet Not available 497.9 (Reverse Polarity) 810, 818, 861 Purple
Red Orange Not available 809, 818
Orange Yellow Not available 809, 826
Turquoise Blue Not available 859, 877
Lemon Green Not available 810, 871
Green Turquoise Not available 871, 877
Dark Grey Not available

Planets

Go to top
Planet Position Deities Associations Relationship to other planets Life Process Spiritual Exercise
Saturn
Shani

Number: 3 (Triangle)
Element: Earth
Zodiac: Capricorn, Aquarius
Cycle: 30 years
Age: 56 to 63 years
Life Process #: 1
From Earth: 7
Evolution: 1
Inner/Outer: Outer
Graha: Shanaischara
Adhi: Prajapati
Pratyadi: Yama
Metal: Lead
Day: Saturday
Crystal: Onyx, Black Tourmaline, Coal, Salt
Cereal: Corn
Tree: Conifer, Beech
Foods/Smells:
Ajwain
Cypress
Horsetail
Tamarind
Friends: Mercury, Venus
Enemies: Sun, Moon, Mars
Neutrals: Jupiter
Influence: Time, harvest, death, peace, endings, completion, tenacity, land or soil
Movement: Movement into upright posture
Body Organ: Spleen
Life Process: Breathing
Life Counter: Consumption
Description: Breathing is related to Saturn. Taking-in. Steiner emphasizes that this is an occult term, which signifies "intake" from the outside world; the beginning of digestion. It encompasses taking in something as spiri­tual as thought, light, or oxygen through the lungs; or as physical as taking in food. <br />All these must be transformed as they are accepted by the body. If too much enters that cannot be processed, it will cause damage or illness. A first step is to control quantity and what comes in. If you take-in too much untransformed warmth, you will get burnt, as in radiation illness. Uncontrolled intake of substances that overwhelm you can lead to addiction or, physically as in smoking, can lead to cancer. Lastly, if the body constantly fights over­abundance, it gets used up; the typical pro­cess of aging.
Right Option

Saturn's strength is being able to discern the essentials and his weaker trait is that he is so convinced of his own opinion that he doesn't really listen.

In the exercise 'the right opinion' one must quell one's own opinion to let the other (person or situation) enter one's being. That means that Saturn must let go of his rigidity, because even though he can easily find the essence he must learn to see that he does not always have all the facts. He must also learn not to be afraid to find that there are more facts than he can handle at that time and that by keeping inner calm and silence the essence will finally come to him. The fear arises out of self-interest and is not in service of mankind.
In addition to this exercise one must do 'Right Contemplation' exercise.

Jupiter
Guru

Number: 4 (Square)
Element: Air
Zodiac: Pisces, Sagittarius
Cycle: 12 years
Age: 49 to 56 years
Life Process #: 2
From Earth: 6
Evolution: 6
Inner/Outer: Outer
Graha: Brihaspati
Adhi: Indra
Pratyadi: Brahma
Metal: Tin
Day: Thursday
Crystal: Lapis Lazuli, Sugilite, Amethyst
Cereal: Rye
Tree: Maple
Foods/Smells:
Agrimony
Dandelion
Sage
Friends: Moon, Mars, Sun
Enemies: Mercury, Venus
Neutrals: Saturn
Influence: Rulership, occupations, sky, wealth, oaths, treaties, matrimony
Movement: Movement of thinking
Body Organ: Liver
Life Process: Warming
Life Counter: Combustion
Description: Taking-in. This directs our attention to whatever increases body temperature. One such process is the influence of the thyroid gland. We all know that people who suffer from an under-se­cretion of the thyroid feel cold and are slow. Thinking is con­nected to the planet Jupiter. <br /> Substances taken in by breathing need to be absorbed more deeply. This happens when food is taken across the gut wall and into the inner or­ganism, or when substances cross through the membranes into the cells. All of these passings, or ferryings, across walls require warmth, and create warmth. One of these ferrying processes is the ionic pump (such as the sodium potassium pump). Surpris­ingly 60% of the body's metabolic energy is generated just to keep these pumps go­ing. Sodium and potassium are substances that make electricity flow. They also make our nervous system function, which ulti­mately allows us to think. Thinking is con­nected to the planet Jupiter.
Right Habit

The weak side of Jupiter is using his power as might through manipulation. His strong side is that he can oversee a huge amount of connections and can contain much at the same time.

Jupiter must try to use his power for the good of mankind and not for personal purposes. He has the possibility to contain much so let him set high ideals. In doing this he must also remember to understand his fellow man and that 'little' problems are just as important as 'big' ones.
In addition to this exercise one must do 'Right Contemplation' exercise.

Mars
Mangala

Number: 5 (Pentagram)
Element: Fire
Zodiac: Aries, Scorpio
Cycle: 2 years
Age: 42 to 49 years
Life Process #: 3
From Earth: 5
Evolution: 4
Inner/Outer: Outer
Graha: Mangal
Adhi: Prithvi
Pratyadi: Ksetrapal
Metal: Iron
Day: Tuesday
Crystal: Ruby, Bloodstone
Cereal: Barley
Tree: Oak
Foods/Smells:
Basil
Black Pepper
Garlic
Mustard
Onion
Friends: Sun, Moon, Jupiter
Enemies: Mercury
Neutrals: Venus, Saturn
Influence: Defense, boldness, war, loyalty, verillity, growth
Movement: Movement of speaking
Body Organ: Gall Bladder
Life Process: Nourishing
Life Counter: Conservation
Description: It is also connected with Mars. Mars is an aggressive Planet, related to destruction. Nutrition has this same quality.Substances brought in with breathing, then warming, now must be broken down within the body. Nutrition has to do with breaking down of proteins, and building up new ones. Actually, the whole world of biochemical changes belongs to this life process. <br /> If a substance cannot be transformed, illnesses of deposit ensue, such as fat cholesterol, xan­thomas, deposits of water (edema), uric acid crystals, (gout), sugar deposits (diabetes) etc. These illnesses are a weakened Mars.
Right Deed

The weak side of Mars is using uncontrolled action to solve problems. Immediate action without thinking the consequences through. The strong side is the fact that he can act; he is not afraid of acting.

Mars must learn to think first, to control his actions (this also applies to words). He can start by asking himself if his intended action would disturb his fellow man. This does mean that he has to build in this moment of reflection. He must try to enlarge his vision so that he can oversee the consequences of his deeds. Only with vision and love can he come to the right deed which is always good for all of mankind.
In addition to this exercise one must do 'Right Contemplation' exercise.

Sun
Surya

Number: 6 (Hexagram)
Element: Fire
Zodiac: Leo
Cycle: N.A
Age: 21 to 42 years
Life Process #: 4
From Earth: 4
Evolution: 2
Inner/Outer: N.A
Graha: Surya
Adhi: Agni
Pratyadi: Shiva
Metal: Gold
Day: Sunday
Crystal: Sunstone, Quartz, Citrine, Diamond, Yellow Sulfur
Cereal: Wheat
Tree: Ash
Foods/Smells:
Chamomile
Cinnamon
Clove
Frankincense
Marigold
Saffron
Friends: Moon, Mars, Jupiter
Enemies: Saturn, Venus
Neutrals: Mercury
Influence: Illumination, vitality, health, creativity, beauty
Movement: Movement of the blood
Body Organ: Heart
Life Process: Circulation
Life Counter:
Description: It relates to the beat of the heart and the rhythm of the lungs. The transformed substances must now be transported to the organs that use them. This is done through the cardiovascular sys­tem, governed by the Sun and the Ego. Everything to do with flow is a manifestation of circulation, for ex­ample the white protein in the blood called albumen. It even looks like the sun, or like an egg, intense at the core, with a white mantle around it. Any disturbance, where circulation suddenly gets out of rhythm, belongs to this pathology. If substances accumulate instead of going where they belong, you have illness. Albuminous processes circulating in the wrong place can cause diar­rhea or various forms of allergies (sudden nasal dis­charges).
Right Judgment

The Sun is the symbol for the harmony between all the planetary qualities. The right judgement is done by detaching oneself from sympathy and antipathy within the situation.

How can we make a right decision, a right judgement? The Sun way is by first looking at the situation or decision through the qualities of each planet and then asking ourselves if the decision fits in the spiritual evolutionary stream working for mankind. In this way the decision is detached from personal sympathy or antipathy. It then becomes self-less and of service to mankind. The deed which accompanies the decision or judgement is then done with complete dedication, with complete awareness.
In addition to this exercise one must do 'Right Contemplation' exercise.

Mercury
Budha

Number: 8 (Octagram)
Element: Air
Zodiac: Gemini, Virgo
Cycle: 100 days
Age: 7 to 14 years
Life Process #: 5
From Earth: 2
Evolution: 5
Inner/Outer: Inner
Graha: Budha
Adhi: Vishnu
Pratyadi: Narayana
Metal: Mercury
Day: Wednesday
Crystal: Yellow and Green stones, Agate, Opal, Mica
Cereal: Millet
Tree: Elm
Foods/Smells:
Caraway
Fennel
Lavender
Licorice
Friends: Sun, Venus
Enemies: Moon
Neutrals: Mars, Jupiter, Saturn
Influence: Wisdom, communication, barter, business, travel
Movement: Movement of the breath
Body Organ: Lungs
Life Process: Maintaining
Life Counter: Sclerosis
Description: It relates to tissue and cell connections. It is the sum total of making sub­stance into the body's own cells, each one round like little mercury droplets. This process belongs to Mer­cury. Mercury also controls the intercellular messenger activity between each cell. All repair, scarring and heal­ing belong to Mercury. Too little produces weakness or hypermobility of tendons; too much can cause uterine fibroids or cysts. In congestive heart failure the heart muscle is not maintained enough.
Right Point of View

The weak side of Mercury is that he does not hold direction; he jabs without follow-up. The strong side is his quick grasp of new ideas; he is not afraid of new concepts.

If Mercury can learn to hold on to the line of spiritual evolution and the cosmic rhythms, if he can learn to use this as a key for his innovations and his shaking loose of stagnant properties, then he can reach the right point of view and become a healing factor for mankind.
In addition to this exercise one must do 'Right Contemplation' exercise.

Venus
Shukra

Number: 7 (Heptagram)
Element: Water
Zodiac: Taurus, Libra
Cycle: 256 days
Age: 14 to 21 years
Life Process #: 6
From Earth: 3
Evolution: 7
Inner/Outer: Inner
Graha: Shukra
Adhi: Sachi
Pratyadi: Indra
Metal: Copper
Day: Friday
Crystal: Azurite, Emerald, Rose Quartz, Chrysocolla
Cereal: Oats
Tree: Birch
Foods/Smells:
Cardamom
Daisy
Mint
Friends: Mercury, Saturn
Enemies: Sun, Moon
Neutrals: Mars, Jupiter
Influence: Fertility, beauty, love, passion, friendship, harmony, nature, family life, relationships
Movement: Movement of the glands
Body Organ: Kidney
Life Process: Growing
Life Counter: Maturation
Description: Throwing-out. It belongs to the same process that forms tissue or ac­tual organs like liver, lung, kidney, etc. It takes a new impulse, that comes from Venus, to individualize tissues and trans­form them into organs. When growth comes to an end, and the body as a whole presents itself to our eyes, we have a truly harmoni­ous 'whole' in front of us. Where do we see the Venus forces? They become obvious in the 'beauty' that the human form, in its entirety, has. All maturing has as its crown­ing point the formation of beauty.
Right Memory

The weak side of Venus is losing herself in her own feelings. The strong side is empathy in feeling.

If Venus can create some distance between her feeling and her higher Self she can learn to use her feeling as an organ of perception. Then she can learn from experiences of others and from her own in relation with spiritual growth. In this way she can obtain the right memory, which means seeing things the way they are and not just remembering her own feelings in the situation, but learning from it and making the right connections. By using this right memory she can help her fellow men find their way in the stream of spiritual evolution.
In addition to this exercise one must do 'Right Contemplation' exercise.

Moon
Chandra

Number: 9 (Enneagram)
Element: Water
Zodiac: Cancer
Cycle: 28 days
Age: Birth to 7 years
Life Process #: 7
From Earth: 1
Evolution: 3
Inner/Outer: Inner
Graha: Chandra
Adhi: Apas
Pratyadi: Gauri
Metal: Silver
Day: Monday
Crystal: White Stones, Moonstone, Quartz, Sapphire, Pearl
Cereal: Rice
Tree: Cherry
Foods/Smells:
Camphor
Lotus
Sandalwood
Water Lily
Friends: Sun, Mercury
Enemies:
Neutrals: Venus, Mars, Saturn, Jupiter
Influence: Enchantment, dreams, midwifery, ancestors, money
Movement: Movement of reproduction
Body Organ: Brain
Life Process: Reproducing
Life Counter: Procreation
Description: Throwing-out. It is the total opposite of the Saturn forces. It is gov­erned by the Moon. Reproductive forces result in the formation of an embryo that grows and is ultimately a totality; a new world, excreted to the outside at birth. Sat­urn forces bring the outer world in, the Moon forces take the inner world out. Pa­thology in the reproductive realm includes genetic diseases.
Right Word

The Moon mirrors and her weak side is that she does this unconsciously, without direction, goal.

This quality of being able to mirror can be transformed to conscious mirroring by practising using the right word. The more she watches what she says, in the end she will be able to speak the right word at the right moment to her fellow man. Her own quality of being able to mirror will then be directed toward the spiritual progress of mankind and will be the mirror of deliverance.
In addition to this exercise one must do 'Right Contemplation' exercise.

Common exercise which needs to be performed for all planets in addition to their respective exercise.:

The Right Contemplation

This exercise is to be done every evening before going to sleep. Before your inner view you unroll the day backwards from the end to the beginning as if it were a film about somebody else, objectively.

In the right contemplation exercise you judge with the higher Self. The Self looks at what you did, thought and felt; looks to see if you tried hard enough in practicing the exercises mentioned above; looks to see if you have been continuously aware of your place in the evolutionary stream; looks at your mistakes and imperfections; looks also how your immediate surroundings are coming along and where you can help. The Self also resolves to do better and searches ways which are within your possibilities but always working towards the high ideal.



Note: In occult, Mercury is near to earth and not Venus; whereas in modern Astrology it is the opposite. In order words, Modern Astrology is wrong referring (intentionally done) the Mercury as Venus and Venus as Mercury. Otherwise, all the properties of both planets are correct in this database and just the PositionFromEarth is changed.

Zodiac Signs

Go to top
Zodiac Astrology Planet Element Triguna Polarity Charge HomeopathicMedicine Crystal Astral Color Dates StartDegree EndDegree Alchemical Process
Libra
Tula

Scales
Quality: Cardinal
House: 7th (Marriage and Partnership)
Venus Air Sattva Transverse Neutral Natrum Phosphoricum Diamond, Opal Black, Crimson, Light blue September 22 - October 21 180 210 Sublimation, which means immersing one's self, or bringing a separation.
Gemini
Mithuna

Twins
Quality: Mutable
House: 3rd (Communications)
Mercury Air Rajas Spiral Positive Kali Muriaticum Beryl, Aquamarine, Dark blue stones Red, White, Blue May 20 - June 18 60 90 Fixation, a process of stabilization to create perfection.
Aquarius
Kumbha

Waterman
Quality: Fixed
House: 11th (Hopes and Wishes/Friends)
Saturn Air Tamas Long Line Negative Natrum Muriaticum Sapphire, Opal, Turquoise Blue, Opal, Nile green January 20 - February 18 300 330 Multiplication, brings on a separation process to bring more possibilities.
Aries
Mesha

Ram
Quality: Cardinal
House: 1st (Self)
Mars Fire Sattva Transverse Neutral Kali Phosphorica Amethyst, Diamond White, Rose-pink March 21 - April 19 0 30 Calcination, a process of burning away impurities to a very refined state.
Leo
Simha

Lion
Quality: Fixed
House: 5th (Creativity)
Sun Fire Rajas Spiral Positive Magnesia Phosphorica Ruby, Diamond Red, Green July 24 - Aug 22 120 150 Digestion, thus separating good from bad substances.
Sagittarius
Dhanush

Archer
Quality: Mutable
House: 9th (Mental Exploration)
Jupiter Fire Tamas Long Line Negative Silicea Carbuncle, Diamond, Turquoise Gold, Red, Green November 21 - December 20 240 270 Incineration, which burns away the dregs of one's impurities.
Cancer
Karkata

Crab
Quality: Cardinal
House: 4th (Home)
Moon Water Sattva Transverse Neutral Calcarea Fluorica Black onyx, Emerald Green, Russet brown June 19 - July 23 90 120 Dissolution, which involves putting one substance into another to create better health.
Scorpio
Vrischika

Scorpion
Quality: Fixed
House: 8th (Death and Regeneration)
Mars Water Rajas Spiral Positive Calcarea Sulphuricum Topaz, Malachite Golden brown, Black October 22 - November 20 210 240 Separation, which takes things apart to purify them.
Pisces
Mina

Fishes
Quality: Mutable
House: 12th (Self-Undoing)
Jupiter Water Tamas Long Line Negative Ferrum Phosphoricum Chrysolite, Pink-shell, Moonstone White, Pink, Emerald-green, Black February 19 - March 20 330 360 Projection, showing our vulnerability and possible cleaning.
Capricorn
Makara

Mountain Goat
Quality: Cardinal
House: 10th (Career)
Saturn Earth Sattva Transverse Neutral Calcarea Phosphorica White onyx, Moonstone Garnet, Brown, Silver-gray, Black December 21 - January 19 270 300 Fermentation, creates a separation by creating a more pure product and toxin release.
Taurus
Vrishaba

Bull
Quality: Fixed
House: 2nd (Possessions)
Venus Earth Rajas Spiral Positive Natrum Sulphuricum Moss agate, Emerald Red, Lemon yellow April 20 - May 19 30 60 Congelation, whereby cold changes the structure for purification.
Virgo
Kanya

Virgin
Quality: Mutable
House: 6th (Service and Health)
Mercury Earth Tamas Long Line Negative Kali Sulphuricum Virgo, Pink jasper, Hyacinth Gold, Black August 23 - September 21 150 180 Distillation, or creating heat to separate and purify.

Polarity Principles

Go to top
Name Nervous System Dosha Zodiac PolarityChange TypeOfForce Deity TypeOfTree CurrentName CurrentDirection StateOfMind Description CurrentDescription
Sattva Parasympathetic Vaata Capricorn,
Aries,
Libra,
Cancer
Neutral Creative Brahma Tree of Life Transverse East-West Super-consciousness mind. Sattvic principle is one of neutrality. It is the principle of essence and stillness. It is a presentation of the unconditioned neutral state found in all existence. It is, as the Chinese say, the stillness within motion which is at the centre of the any event. It is the Neutral ground from which energy moves. It emanates from the positive and negative poles (top and bottom) of the neutral sushumna current of the core energy system. It then spirals transversely around the body. Its function is one of intercommunication and binding. It is a neutral feedback pattern and helps to relate the periphery of the energy system to the core.
Rajas Sympathetic Pitta Scorpio,
Leo,
Gemini,
Taurus
Positive Protective Vishnu Tree of Nourishment Spiral Foward-Backward Activity of conscious mind. Rajasic principle is the positive yang phase of energy movement. It is the driving aspect of energy suggesting action and propulsion whose quality is the expansive, centrifugal phase of energy. It is the drive behind an event or experience. Rajas is the male aspect of our energy system, of assertion, warmth and the sun. It emanates from the Fire Centre (umbilicus) to encompass the whole of the energy system and it functions to provide the quality of energy for movement, warmth and healing. It governs the distribution of internal vital energy throughout the body.
Tamas Central Or Cerebrospinal Kapha Aquarius,
Pisces,
Sagittarius,
Virgo
Negative Destructive Shiv Tree of Knowledge of Good and Evil Long Line North-South Crystallization effect of Sub-conscious mind or earthbound mind, going into sense life entirely and bound thereby. Tamasic principle is the negative yin phase of energy movement. It is the quality of the contractive, centripetal phase of energy. It is the phase of completion and of receptivity. It is the female aspect of our energy system, of receptivity and of crystallisation into forms. It is formed by currents which pulsate individually from each chakra. They emanate from each centre in specific patterns or current lines. Each current is of the quality of energy most like that of its centre. So the current which arises from the Water Centre is thus called the Water current line. They emanate from each chakra, expand outward in a vertical fashion and then return to the centre in a contractive phase. Their function is to regulate and monitor the physiology of the body.

Vital Essences

Go to top
Name Dosha Description
Prana/Qi
Neutral
Vaata It is the Original Force of Life. It is the subtle energy of the Air principle (Vaata) masterful force behind all the functions of the body and the mind. It is responsible for the corodination of breathing, the senses and the mind. At a depper level it governs the development of elevated states of conscience.
Tejas/Shen
Positive
Pitta It is the Inner Radiance. It is the subtle energy of the Fire principle (Pitta) through which we take in impressions and feelings. At a deep level it regulations the expansion of the elevated perceptual capacities.
Ojas/Jing
Negative
Kapha It is the Original Vigor. It is the subtle energy of Water principle (Kapha). At a deep level it supports and nourishes all the elevated states of the conscience. Ojas is the essence of the 7 dhatus/tissues.

Nervous System

Go to top
Name Triguna Vital Essence Dosha Subdosha Description Reflex Relationships How To Balance
Parasympathetic Sattva Prana/Qi Vaata Prana, Udana, Samana, Vyana, Apana Parasympathetic nervous system tie the periphery to the central core and manifest as a netural pattern of balance and interrelationship. This system balances the action of the sympathetic nervous system. It brings blood to the core and away from the periphery. It encourages digestion and brings blood to these inner organs. It slows down respiratory and cardiac rhythms and is in ascendance in meditative states. Pending Perineal Techniques
Sympathetic Rajas Tejas/Shen Pitta Sadhaka, Alochaka, Pachaka, Ranjaka, Bhrajaka Sympathetic nervous system is the system which stimulates the body and prepares it for action. It is the 'flight or fright' system. It brings blood to the periphery for muscular action. It causes vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the core of the body and its digestive organs and vasodilation in the periphery which brings blood to the muscles for activity. It is the system of action and doing. It speeds up metabolism, heart and respiratory rates. i.e blood goes from inner most to outer most. Pending Coccygeal Techniques
Central Or Cerebrospinal Tamas Ojas/Jing Kapha Tarpaka, Avalambaka, Kledaka, Bodhaka, Shleshaka Central Nervous system Or Cerebrospinal system is the body's master computer and system of voluntary action. It is the system that the conscious mind functions through and this function is to bring patterns of though and emotion into form and action. Pending Cranial & Cranial Pelvic Therapy

Body Organs

Go to top
Name Element Meridian ReflectedIn OpensInto SolidOrHollow YangOrYin Controls Stores Description
Brain Brain
Gall Bladder Ether Gallbladder Meridian Hollow Yang Judgement, Decision making, Skeletal System Bile The gallbladder, a sack-like structure, stores bile (greenish fluid) which is produced by the liver and used in the digestive process. The Gallbladder channel is connected with the Liver channel and is also responsible for the unobstruction of Prana as well as the health of the tendons. The gallbladder, due to its connection with the liver, is directly connected to the Ether element and to Pitta.
Liver Ether Liver Meridian Nails Eyes Solid Yin Planning & Strategy Hun/Ethereal Soul/Blood The liver is positioned in the right hypochondria (under the breathing diaphragm). It controls the unobstruction of Prana and blood, and is responsible for the health of the tendons due to their connection with Pitta. The liver also receives food nutrients from the stomach and intestines via the portal veins. It produces and stores various vitamins, sugars and minerals. It also digests the Five Elements (e.g. from a vegetable) and turns them into the form which can be used by the body. This is achieved by the Bhuta-Agnis, the five liver fires which digest the elements. The liver is a Pitta organ, since the word pitta itself is translated as bile, a product which is produced by the liver.

Liver system with its gall excretion drives the whole into our very EGO. It ensures smooth flow of Qi. Tears are the fluid of Liver.
Lungs Air Lung Meridian Throat Nose Solid Yin Administration, Nervous System Po/Animal Soul The lung controls the flow of water and Prana through the body. This occurs because it is only by Prana flowing correctly through the channels that water (body fluids) can similarly flow.

It is responsible for the health of the skin and hair, since being a Vata organ it relates to the Air element. There are two lungs in the bodj, one on the right side and one on the left side of the body. Oxygen which carries Prana is taken into the blood and then diffused into the blood stream to be carried elsewhere. Waste carbon dioxide is excreted from the body via the lungs and expiration.

Lungs rule exterior (sking, sweat glands, body hair) of the body. If Lung Qi is weak, there may be too much/little sweat and the resistance of Protective Qi will be poor. Lungs move and adjust Water channel. It moves water in 2 directions: (1) To kidney (if the vapor becomes fluid during the use), (2) Circulate and scatter water vapor throughout body, particularly through skin/pores.
Large Intestine Air Large Intestine Meridian Hollow Yang Waste Conduction, Waste Conveyance, Circulation System The large intestine consists of four sections, the cecum, ascending, transverse and descending colons and is approximately five feet in length. The large intestine absorbs moisture from the digested food, and is also extremely important in the absorption of Prana from food into the body. It manufactures some vitamins in the intestinal flora, forms feces and expels them by the use of peristalsis (waves). The large intestine is related to Vata and Air, and consequently to the lungs and also has an effect on the skin and hair. The Large Intestine channel is located along the arm in a relative position to the Lung channel.

It continues to move turbid parts of food and fluids downwards, while at the same time absorbing water from the waste material. At end of process feces is formed.
Heart Fire Heart Meridian Face Tongue Solid Yin Blood, Blood Vessels Shen/Seat of Consciousness The heart controls the flow of blood through the body and is the site of Prana, which often controls mental activity according to Charaka. The heart is responsible for the health of the blood vessels. Physiologically, the heart is an involuntary muscle which acts as a pump, contracting and expanding to force blood to all parts of the body. The heart consists of four separate chambers, the upper two are called the Atria (left and right) while the lower two are called the Ventricles. These compartments are separated by muscular partitions called septa (singular: septum). There are also four valves which regulate the flow of blood, two semilunar valves, one tricuspid and one bicuspid or mitral valves.

The heart is related to Kapha because it is essentially made of muscle (Earth), but also it is energetically connected to Pitta and the Fire element as well, through its connection with blood. The heart has a pranic channel (nadi) which commences in the heart. It is then logically called the Heart channel.

Heart is that organ, which together with the lung is driving the outer substances into our own ETHERIC organization. Also Sweat originates in the heart. While it remains within the body, it is blood. When it is excreted through the skin, it becomes sweat. Therefore, when there is excessive perspiration, there will not be much blood left in the body. Or when someone loses a great amount of the blood, it will be difficult for him to perspire.
Small Intestine Fire Small Intestine Meridian Hollow Yang Separate pure from turbid, Digestion System The small intestine is positioned in the abdominal area and absorbs 90% of all nutrients. It is approximately twenty feet in length. Since the small intestine is a Fire organ and is related to the heart with which it is internally connectedJ it is also involved in the health of the blood vessels. The small intestine is also the site of Agni, the digestive fire. When Agni becomes low (which can occur due to antibiotics, stress etc.) the digestive process will falter, causing malabsorption of nutrients and the consequential effect of Ama, or toxin build-up in the body. Also, due to low Agni (fire) in the small intestine., various germs and molds etc. (e.g. candida) can be allowed a safe passage to the large intestine where they lodge and begin to cause dysfunctions. The Small Intestine channel is located in the arm in a relative position to the Heart channel, with which it is related.

Clear is sent to Spleen, and turbid is sent to Large Intestine. It manages Receiving, Containing, and Transforming.
Triple Warmer Fire Triple Warmer Meridian Hollow Yang Lymphatic System The tridosha is not a physiological organ per se., but in Ayurveda it is considered as such. Tridosha is a generalization of the three areas of the trunk which relate to the three humors (doshas). These are Vata, Pitta and Kapha.

As the trunk can be considered a hollow pipe, then the Tridosha is a hollow organ. Tridoshas literally means "three-humors". The flow of fluids through these three areas of the trunk can be affected by an imbalance in one or more of the three humors, so that the mutual balance of all is reflected in the Tridosha and its pranic channel. The Tridosha (3D) and the pericardium are therefore related and their pranic channels interconnect.

It is a pathway that makes organs a complete system. Upper burner is everything above the diaphragm: head, chest, heart, and lungs. Middle burner diaphragm to waist (above naval): spleen and stomach. Lower burner is area below naval including kidney, liver, uterus, intestines, bladder.
Pericardium Fire Pericardium Meridian Solid Yin Although not strictly an organ per se, the pericardium is nevertheless recognized as one in Ayurveda. It is a sac which surrounds (protective screen) the heart and usually swells with fluid during a disease (pericarditis). It is connected to the diaphragm, the heart blood vessels and the thoracic wall. This organ has an effect on the Kapha flow. Its pranic energy channel is located along the arms.
Kidney Water Kidney Meridian Head hair Ears Solid Yin Water, Reproduction, Growth Zhi/Essence/Jing/Root of Life/Will The two kidneys are positioned directly behind the eighth to tenth ribs. It controls water metabolism and is responsible for the bones, marrow and affects the reproductive organs since these are positioned in the Vata area of the trunk. It also separates waste products and water from the blood to excrete as urine. Through its drying action on fluids in the body (just like a flood-gate), the kidneys relate to Vata. When it removes water, it relates to Vata, but while it retains water in the body, it deals with Kapha. The kidney has a pranic channel which connects with the legs.

Kidney drives our own Etheric energy (which was converted from outside by Heart and Lungs) into our ASTRAL organization. The kidneys communicate with our outside world. Kidney is the source of reproduction, development and muturation. All circulation of water in body depends on the vaporizing power of kidneys. The spleen also vaporizes pure fluids as it raises the pure essences of food and fluids but its vaporization power is dependent on the Kidney fire.
Bladder Water Bladder Meridian Hollow Yang Storage of fluids/humors, Reproduction The urinary bladder is a membranous sack which stores urine after it is produced and excreted by the kidneys. It connects with the kidneys via two pipes called ureters. The bladder and the kidneys both affect the health of the bones, marrow and the reproductive system related to Vata.

It receives fluids from the lungs and small intestine, temporarily holds the fluids, transforms them into urine, aided by kidney qì/yáng, and excretes the urine.
Spleen Earth Spleen Meridian Lips Mouth Solid Yin Transformation, Transportation, Blood Yi/Thought The spleen controls digestion and the transportation of blood. It is responsible for the muscles. The spleen, positioned in the upper left side of the abdominal cavity, functions also to remove and destroy disease-producing organisms from the blood stream. It stores blood in order to release it when required, as when excessive bleeding occurs. Due to its connection with the blood, the spleen is related to Pitta. However, it is also related to Kapha because of its connection with the earth element and its attribute of growth. In fact, the difference between muscle and fat (both contain earth and water) is that the spleen heavily deals with blood, and through its heat (fire) it turns earth and water (as though by baking) into muscle. It is the heat that makes the difference between muscle and fat. Fat is analogous to gelatin powder (earth) and water, it results in a cold, unstable (floppy) concoction. Muscle, on the other hand, is like making a mixture of cake powder (earth) and water and placing it in the oven (heat) to bake. The result is like a solid structure much more stable than the gelatin (jelly) product. The spleen has a pranic channel which connects with the legs.

Spleen governs blood and holds blood in proper places (just like banks of river). Spleen is the Charge of production of Qi and blood.
Stomach Earth Stomach Meridian Hollow Yang Receiving & Fermenting The stomach is positioned in the upper part of the abdominal cavity. It is connected with the esophagus at the top end and at the small intestine by the pyloric sphincter or valve. Its main function is to receive and macerate food with the aid of the gastric juices. This mixture is eventually thinned down into chyme which exits the stomach and enters the duodenum (small intestine). Some experts believe that it is a subtle form of chyme which is produced in the stomach and attacks the lung when Kapha is aggravated. The stomach works in conjunction with the spleen which carries on the functions of digestion and absorption. As with the spleen, with which it is internally related, the stomach also affects the muscles. Growth in the body is under the control of Kapha, the anabolic humor. The stomach is a very important part of this humor. The Stomach channel is positioned along the legs in a direct relationship with the spleen.

It is responsible for receiving and ripening ingested food and fluids. 'Pure' part is sent to spleen and 'turbid' part is sent to Small Intestine.

Doshas

Go to top
Dosha Subdoshas Responsibility LocationsInBody ModernChemistry Description Symptoms In Body When Normal Symptoms In Body When Increased Symptoms In Body When Decreased Disorders Treatment Plan
Vaata
Element: Ether, Air
Essence: Prana/Qi
Triguna: Sattva
Nervous: Parasympathetic
Force: Creative
Life Activity: Catabolism/Reducing
Accumulation: Summer
Defective: Rainy
Pacification: Autumn
Prana,
Udana,
Samana,
Vyana,
Apana
Movement
Communication
Transport
Colon (Main)
Urinary tract
Waist
Legs
Feet
Bones
Ear and organ of touch (skin)
Master control system
DNA
Nervous system
Homeostasis
Sodium/Potassium balance
Mitosis
Meiosis
Chemical transfer of messsages in brain
Excess of enzyme monoamine oxidase (MAO)
Vaata is that primal constituents of the living body, whose structure is Ether-Air (or vital life force and healing power of Vaata i.e Prana), and whose function is Raajasic, it being concerned with the production of those physical and mental proceses which are predominantly raajasic (activating or dynamic) in nature; hence, the presence of vaata is to be inferred in such mental phenomena as exhibition of enthusiasm, concentration, etc., as also in such physical phenomena as respiration, circulation, voluntary action of every kind, excertion and so on. It will be seen that many of these physical phenomena are included among those which modern physiologists would assign primarily to the activities of the Nervous system (both cerebropsinal and autonomic).

Besides being located in each and every cell, each dosha has a primary location known as its “seat”. If a dosha is starting to go out of balance, the first symptom will often occur at its seat.
Enthusiasm, inspiration, expiration, movements, normal processing of dhatus, and normal elimination if excreta. Holds up the systems and organs, initiates upward and downward movements, leads and controls the mind, employs all sense organs in their activity, carries all sense objects, causes structural formation of all bodily dhatus, promotes union in the body, prompts speech, originates touch and sound, is the root of auditory and tactile sense organs, is source of exhiliration and courage, stimulated agni, absorbs dosas, throws out excreta, makes the gross and subtle channels, shapes the foetus and maintains life-span. Produces emaciation, black dis-coloration, desire for hot things, distention of the abdomen, constipation, loss of strength, sleep and of sensory functions, irrelevant speech, giddiness and timidity (peevishness). Separation, dislocation, division, attachment, tearing malaise, exhilaration, thirst, tremors, circumvention, looseness, piercing pain, pain , movement, tastelessness, numbness, contraction, stiffness, limping. Agitates mind, affects all the sense organs, destroys, deforms or detains the embryo for long, produces fear, grief, confusion, anxiety and excessive delirium and (at the end) stops the vital breath. Debility of body, the person speaks very little and does very little physical activity, loss of sensation (awareness) and of consciousness and occurrance of all the symptoms of increased kapha. Cracking in soles, pain in foot, foot drop, numbness in feet, pain in ankles, stiffness in ankles, cramps in calf, sciatica, tearing pain in knees, stiffness in thighs, loss of movement in thighs, lameness, prolapse of rectum, pain in anus, twitching in scrotum, stiffness in penis, pain in groins, pain in pelvis, pain in defecation, upward movement of V (‘udavarta’), limping, hunch back, dwarfism, stiffness in sacral region, stiffness in back, compression in sides, twisting pain in abdomen, cardiac dysfunction, tachycardia, shivering in chest, constriction in chest, chest pain, wasting of arms, stiffness of neck, stiffness of sternomastoid, hoarseness of voice, pain in jaw, cracking of lips, pain in eyes/cleft palate, pain in teeth, loose teeth, dumbness [inability to speak], stammering, astringent taste in mouth, dryness of mouth, loss of taste sensation, loss of smell sensation, ear-ache, “dizziness, in ears” [??], hardness in hearing, deafness, stiffness in eyelids, contraction in eyelids, loss of vision, pain in eyes, squint, twisting of eyebrows, pain in the temporal region, pain in forehead, headache, cracking of scalp, facial paralysis, monoplegia, hemiplegia, polyplegia, convulsions, tetanic convulsions, feeling of darkness before the eyes, giddiness, tremors, yawning, hiccup, malaise, excessive delirium, roughness, coarseness, blackish and reddish luster, insomnia, and instability of mind. It is pacified by drugs having opposite quality to it’s own qualities. Sweet, sour, salted, unctuous, and hot therapeutic measures, and also application of non-unctuous and unctuous enema, snuffing, diet, massage, anointing, bath, etc. in appropriate dose and time. Non-unctuous and unctuous enema are the most important. They overcome all vata symptoms like cutting down a tree at the roots surely kills all trunk, branches and leaves.

Oil is also a prime remedy for Vaata.
Pitta
Element: Fire, Water
Essence: Tejas/Shen
Triguna: Rajas
Nervous: Sympathetic
Force: Protective
Life Activity: Metabolism/Maintenance
Accumulation: Rainy
Defective: Autumn
Pacification: Early Rainy
Sadhaka,
Alochaka,
Pachaka,
Ranjaka,
Bhrajaka
Metabolism Chemical reactions
Digestion
Transformation
Solar Plexus (main)
Sweat
Chyle
Lymph
Blood
Plasma
Stomach
Small Intestine
Eye
Organ of touch (skin)
Krebs cycle
ATP and other high-energy molecules
Enzyme synthesis
Amonia acid
Entropy production
Amino acid
Enzymes
Hormones
Mitochondria
Bile
Hydrochloric acid
Endocrine system
Oestron-Progesterone level
Low thyroid level
Thyroxine (if low
then Pitta low)
Pitta is that primal constituent of the living body, whose structure is Fire-Water (or inner light and healing power of Pitta i.e Tejas), and whose function is Saatwic, it being concerned with the production of those physical and mental processes which are predominantly saatwic (balancing or transformative) in nature; hence, the presence of Pitta is to be inferred in such mental phenomena like intellection and clear concentration, as also in such physical phenomena as digestion, assimilation, heat production and so on. It will be seen that many of these physical phenomena are among those which modern physiologists would include under the activities of Thermogenetic and Nutritional systems (including thermogenesis and the activities of glandular or secretory structures), especially of the endocrine glands whose internal secretions or hormones are now known to be of such vital importance in digestion, assimilation, tissue-building and metabolism generally.

Besides being located in each and every cell, each dosha has a primary location known as its “seat”. If a dosha is starting to go out of balance, the first symptom will often occur at its seat.
Vision, digestion, maintenance of body temperature, heat, hunger, thirst, softness in body, appetite, complexion, lustre, cheerfulness and intellect, courage, prowess, exhilaration, clarity. Burning, heat, inflammation, perspiration, moisture, sloughing, itching, discharge, redness, along with the appearance of respective smell, color and taste, yellow coloration of the feces, urine, eyes, and skin, excess of hunger and thirst, feeling of burning sensation and very little sleep. Produces weakness of digestive activity, coldness and loss of lustre (complexion). Heating, scorching, burning, intense burning, fuming, hyperacidity, burning in the stomach and esophagus, internal burning, burning in scapular region, pyrexia, over-perspiration, foul smell in body, tearing of body parts, excessive moisture in blood (possibly uraemic conditions), moistening of muscles, burning in skin, tearing of skin, thickening of skin [[scleroderma]], urticarial patches, pustules, internal hemorrhage, haemmorhagic patches, greenishness, yellowness, bluishness, herpes, jaundice, bitterness in mouth, bloody smell from mouth, foetid smell form mouth, excessive thirst, loss of contentment, stomatitis, inflammation in throat, inflammation in eyes, inflammation in anus, inflammation in penis, discharge of pure blood, fainting, green or yellow color in eyes, urine and feces. Pitta is pacified immediately by substances opposite to it’s own qualities. Sweet, bitter, astringent and cold measures and application of unction, purgation, pasting, bath, massage, etc. which alleviate pitta. Purgation is the best, because it removes the source of Pitta quite effectively. An analogy: In a wood stove, when we remove the fire from it’s firechamber, the stove surely becomes cold.

Ghee is also a top remedy for Pitta.
Kapha
Element: Water, Earth
Essence: Ojas/Jing
Triguna: Tamas
Nervous: Central Or Cerebrospinal
Force: Destructive
Life Activity: Anabolism/Building
Accumulation: Early Winter
Defective: Spring
Pacification: Summer
Tarpaka,
Avalambaka,
Kledaka,
Bodhaka,
Shleshaka
Structure
Cohesion
Lubrication
Chest (main)
Head
Neck
Joints
Stomach
Small Intestine
Fat
Plasma
Pancreas
Nose
Tongue
Lipids
Polysaccharides
Fatty acid
Phospholiquid
Interstitial fluid
Intercullar fluid
Cytoplasm
Synovial fluid
Cerebral fluid
Myelin sheath
Kapha is that primal constituent of the living body, whose structure is Water-Earth (or ultimate energy reserve of body that manifests from Kapha i.e Ojas), and whose function is Taamasic, it being concerned with the production of those physical and mental processes which are predominantly taamasic (conserving or stabilizing) in nature; hence the presence of kapha is to be inferred in such mental phenomena as the exhibition of courage, forbearance, etc., as also in such physical phenomena as the promotion of bodily strength and build, integration of the structural elements of the body into stable structures, the maintenance of smooth working joints, and so on. It will be seen that many of these physical phenomena are among those which modern physiologists would include under the activities of the Skeletal and Anabolic systems.

Besides being located in each and every cell, each dosha has a primary location known as its “seat”. If a dosha is starting to go out of balance, the first symptom will often occur at its seat.
Lubrication, binding, firmness, heaviness, potency, strength, forbearance, restraint, and absence of greed. Firmness, development, enthusiasm, potency, knowledge, understanding. Whiteness (e.g white coloration of feces), coldness, itching, immobility, heaviness, unctuousness, numbness, moistening, mucous covering, binding sweetness, chronicity [slow pace/ non-resolving of conditions]. Kapha produces weakness and depletion disorders. It also produces these symptoms: laxity, emaciation, idleness, impotency, ignorance, confusion and other conditions. Debility of digestive activity, excess salivation, lassitude, feeling of heaviness, white coloration (of feces etc.), coldness, looseness of the body parts, dyspnoea, cough and excess of sleep. Causes dizziness, emptiness of the organs of kapha, tremors of the heart (palpitation) and looseness of the joints. Saturation, drowsiness, excessive sleep, cold sensation, heaviness in body, lassitude, sweetness in mouth, salivation, mucous expectoration, excess dirt, excess mucous, indigestion, “plastering” of heart*, plastering of throat, accumulation in vessels*, goitre, over-plump-ness, urticarial eruptions, urticarial patches, white lustre, whiteness in urine, eyes and feces. Substances having the opposite qualities to Kapha reduce it. Pungent, bitter, astringent, sharp, hot and rough measures. Also fomentation, emesis, snuffing, exercise, etc. Emesis is the best. It works surely, just as rice plants will surely dry out and die when the rice field’s earth water dam is opened up.

Honey is a top remedy for Kapha.

SubDoshas

Go to top
SubDosha Direction Situated In Energy Prevades In Functions Governs Description Disorders
Prana
Lead Breath

Dosha: Vaata
Element: Ether
Upward, Inward Head Heart Breathing & Swallowing of food Reception of all Prana is present in the head and moves downward and inward. It is connected with higher cerebral function. Prana vayu is located in the cranial cavity and it moves in the head. It also moves down to the throat, heart, trachea, lungs, and diaphragm. Because of this movement, prana is responsible for inhalation.Prana creates a union of outer cosmic prana and inner prana. Prana moves the mind and prana becomes mind. If one controls prana, one can control the mind. Prana is movement of mind, thoughts, feelings, emotions, sensation, and perception. When prana is motionless, it becomes blissful awareness. So, awareness becomes perception, perception becomes sensation, and sensation becomes feelings. Then thoughts arise and feelings become emotions. This is the natural order. Motionless prana is Pure Awareness. The moment prana moves in a particular direction, awareness becomes attention and attention becomes perception. Through perception, prana creates sensation through which one senses the object of perception. Then sensation becomes feelings and feelings create emotion. Therefore, emotion is the reaction to the flow of prana and all emotions come from memory. Disorders above the belly button. Palpitation, dyspnea, undue awareness of respiration, or breathlessness, anxiety, nervousness, fear and anger, inability to focus mind, stroke, paralysis, grand mal epilepsy, sleep apnea, tremors of Parkinson's disease, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, hiccoughs, constant burping.
Udana
Upward Breath

Dosha: Vaata
Element: Air
Upward Throat Circulation flow around head & neck Moves upward Speech & Intellect,
Self-expression
The next important vayu is udana, which is upward moving energy. Udana vayu is located in the diaphragm and moves upward through the lungs, bronchi, trachea, and throat. Udana also goes up into the brain and stimulates memory. Udana is the nerve impulse that takes place at the solar plexus and tracheal plexus. It governs the movement of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles, and helps the process of exhalation. Udana is responsible for speech and expression. A person cannot speak without exhalation. Prana vayu is the energy that brings oxygen into the lungs and udana vayu is responsible for exhalation of carbon dioxide. Udana vayu helps oxygenation. When oxygenation is good, the person appears fresh and vital. When a child crawls on the floor and tries to raise its head, that is udana vayu. If udana is weak, the child cannot lift its head or support its neck. Difficulty of speech, such as stuttering or muttering, lack of memory, lack of creativity, and no sense of goal or direction, depression and discoloration of the skin, hoarseness of voice, asthma, pneumonia, emphysema - as well as blushing and flushing.
Samana
Equalizing Breath

Dosha: Vaata
Element: Fire
Periphery to Center of Body Abdomen Abdomen Isolation,
Separation,
Splitting
Digestion Samana vayu is present in the small intestine and navel. It moves the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. This vayu provides the stimulus for the secretion of digestive juices. Therefore, samana vayu is closely connected with agni (digestive fire). There are agnis in the liver and samana vayu provides the energy to secrete the liver enzymes. The bile that is secreted from the liver, along with the liver enzymes, are accumulated in the gallbladder by samana vayu. It constricts the gallbladder and pushes the bile from the gallbladder through the bile duct into the duodenum. All of these movements are governed by samana vayu. This vayu plays an important role in creating hunger. When one feels hungry, samana is awake. Samana sends a message to prana asking for food. When one eats, samana vayu stimulates the secretion of hydrochloric acid and opens the pyloric valve for movement of foodstuff into the duodenum. Samana vayu brings the foodstuff into the cecum, which is called the second stomach. The entire movement around the belly button is samana vayu and this movement is linear and outward. Disorders at the belly button. Loss of appetite, indigestion, increased or decreased peristalsis, bloating, lack of absorption and assimilation, poor digestion, malabsorption syndrome.
Vyana
Pervading Breath

Dosha: Vaata
Element: Water
Circular, Center to Periphery of Body Heart and Lungs Whole body Pulsation,
Throbbing
Autonomic nervous system,
Circulation of all subtances
The main function of vyana vayu is to maintain cardiac activity, circulation, nutrition and oxygenation of cell tissues and organ systems. Vyana vayu is present in the heart and maintains the circulation of arterial blood, venous blood, and lymphatic circulation. Vyana moves throughout the body. Vyana is a strong vayu and all reflex actions, including the corneal reflex, are governed by its energy. It is responsible for the movement of the joints and skeletal muscles through the reflex arc. The reflex arc goes only to the spinal cord and not to the brain, and the spinal cord answers these reflexes. Poor circulation and sudden lack of oxygenation, when coronary arteries are clogged a person may get ischemic heart disease, Edema, or stagnation of blood in the lower extremities, Horripilation, Shivering.
Apana
Downward Breath

Dosha: Vaata
Element: Earth
Downward, Outward Pelvic Lower Abdomen Holding Elimination of all substances Apana vayu is present in the pelvic cavity, in the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and urinary tract. Apana vayu is also present in the vagina and cervix of a woman and testicles, prostate, and urethra of a man. It moves downward and outward. It regulates the function of the kidneys. The urine is filtered in the kidneys and drop-by-drop is brought down into the bladder. It also stimulates menstruation, defecation, and flatulence. Apana is motor function working with different segments of the lumbosacral spine. From the lumbosacral spine the message is carried to the bladder to evacuate urine; to the rectum to evacuate feces; to the womb to produce menstruation or delivery of a child. Apana pushes the child from the womb. It nourishes the bones through the colon mucous membrane and the absorption of minerals It regulates the movement of the sciatic nerve and the lower part of the body. It is also responsible for movement of sperm in the man and the desire to make love. In the woman, apana stimulates ovulation, regulates menstruation, and during pregnancy apana nourishes the fetus and moves it during delivery. During intercourse, apana of the man and woman merge together and bring the meeting of the sperm and ovum. Apana is responsible for conception. If apana is weak, conception is not possible. If apana vayu is weak, a woman accumulates fat in the thighs. Disorders below the belly button are associated with this vayu. Constipation, Diarrhea, Retention of urine, no menstruation or heavy manstruation. Pain during menstruation, pain during sex, lower backache, paint during ovulation, sexual impariment, premature ejaculation or premature orgasm, osteoporosis.
Sadhaka
Helper

Dosha: Pitta
Element: Ether
N.A Brain (gray matter) Heart Conscious thinking and emotions,
Comprehension
Intellect & Memory Sadhaka pitta is present in the gray matter of the brain as certain neurotransmitters, and in the heart as part of the cardiac plexus or the heart chakra. It is responsible for knowledge, understanding, comprehension, and appreciation. It transforms sensations into feelings and emotions. It also creates the feeling of “I am" that is ego. In Vedic philosophy the ego is not a bad thing. A person must have self-confidence, self-esteem, and that self-esteem is called ego. ahamkara. Self-esteem is essential for survival and growth. The pitta present in the nervous system that is responsible for all neuro-chemical changes is sadhaka pitta. The gray matter of the brain regulates the temperature of neurons and that is also sadhaka pitta. It is sadhaka pitta that helps to transform molecules of food, water, and air into a biological cellular component called cytoplasm. The content of cytoplasm is further transformed into awareness by subtle cellular metabolic activity because of sadhaka pitta. All biochemical neurotransmitters, which are necessary to maintain higher cerebral activity, fall under sadhaka pitta. The unprocessed cytoplasmic content becomes emotion. Every thought, feeling, and emotion should be processed into intelligence. That which is not processed is crystallized and stored in the connective tissue. Sadhaka pitta also transforms physical sound into nerve impulse, which is carried to the center of hearing where every sound, as a nerve impulse, is transformed, cooked, digested, and translated into meaning. Meaning is feeling. The word “love” creates certain feelings in one's heart. Love cannot be described but pure essence of love can be felt. If you say that anything that cannot be described does not exist, that means you have lost feeling. Feeling is called ESP—extrasensory perception. Sadhaka pitta, which is present in the brain cells as a specialized neuro-chemical substance, creates ESP, the important sixth sense. Prana is a flow of awareness and this flow of intelligence is neuro-electricity that is moving through the nerves and delivering a message. Though messenger molecules are RNA molecules, prana brings the message from DNA to RNA. So there is a functional relationship between DNA molecules, which create new cells, and RNA molecules, which are the messengers. Prana brings the message. Past memory and experience is stored in the RNA/DNA molecules. In the process of recognition, sadhaka pitta penetrates the memory and chooses a particular file from the vast hologram of RNA/DNA molecules. This is a function of buddhi, the intellect. 'Reality' is a product of mind. Reality in this room is different to reality in another room. 'Truth' that is confined by time and space becomes reality. 'Actuality' is a product of the senses. The pencil in someone’s hand is actual to that person at that time. Therefore, it is also reality to them. When you look at them holding the pencil, it is your reality, but only when you touch it does it become actual to you. So what is the relationship between Truth, reality, and actuality? Reality has to pass through actuality, or actuality must come in close contact with reality, in order to realize Truth. So Truth is unconditional, universal absolute. The moment a person experiences that, it becomes personal reality. As long as a person is in the dream, dream is reality. When he comes out of the dream, reality changes, because reality is bound by time and space. Truth is not. In that sense, awareness is Truth, consciousness is reality, and perception is actuality. So perception has to pass through consciousness in order to reach awareness, which means actuality has to go through reality in order to reach the Truth. This transformation is governed by sadhaka pitta. It is sadhaka pitta that bridges this function of looking and listening with total existence. Then existence becomes actual. When we internalize actuality, or reality, it becomes Truth. Truth has a relationship with reality and actuality, but actuality and reality may not have a relationship to the Truth, because the bridge between actuality and reality of Truth is sadhaka pitta. Therefore, we can only have a clear relationship with Truth if sadhaka pitta is healthy. Sadhaka pitta is necessary for the transformation of an object into pure experience. When experience is recorded in the brain cells, it becomes memory and memory is knowledge. No information available.
Alochaka
Seer

Dosha: Pitta
Element: Air
N.A Eyes Eyes Maintains iris color,
Visual perception
Vision Alochaka pitta is present in the eye and governs the luster, color, and translucence of the eye. It is present in the cornea to maintain transference and translucence. It is present in the iris to maintain color and in the lens to maintain transference. It is also present in the vitreous humor and in the cone and rod cells. Alochaka pitta is necessary for optical perception. It maintains the temperature of the eyeball, the color of the iris, color vision, and vision of light. When you look at an object, that image is formed on the retina and absorbed by the sharp quality of alochaka pitta into the optic nerve. Then prana vayu carries that image to the mind for interpretation. Alochaka pitta maintains visual perception and three-dimensional vision. If you have only one eye, what you see is a flat picture. Binocular vision, with two eyes, is three-dimensional. One of the important functions of alochaka pitta, along with prana, is accommodation (ability to focus), which means the constriction or dilation of the pupil, so that appropriate light is allowed to enter and fall on the retina for clear perception of an object. Alochaka pitta is responsible for generating the visual impulse, which prana then carries to the mind, to buddhi, where interpretation of the impulse is accomplished by sadhaka pitta. So, alochaka pitta meets sadhaka pitta in buddhi, where interpretation of visual perception takes place. This meeting point is in the occipital cortex, the posterior (back) portion of the head. If there is trauma at this meeting point, a person may become blind. Alochaka pitta is also associated with emotions. Different emotions bring a different chemistry to the tears. Tears of joy and love are sweet, scanty, and cool, and come from the lateral (outer) side of the eye. Tears of anger come from the center of the eye and are sour to the taste, and hot. Tears of frustration, grief, sadness, and fear come from the medial (inner) side and are bitter and astringent to the taste. Eyes have the capacity to see the truth. When you look without judgment, without interference of thought and mind, the eyes become the windows of God and you can perceive the Truth. If your thought and mind interfere, then you perceive reality, because reality is a product of your mind. We need sensitive alochaka pitta that can perceive the truth of reality, the truth of actuality. When you perceive the Truth, there is love, clarity, compassion, and pure awareness. Glaucoma, changes in the eyes leading to shortsightedness or farsightedness. If alochaka pitta is increased, it may create conjunctivitis, styes, iritis, burning sensation in the eye, and photophobia.
Pachaka
Cooker

Dosha: Pitta
Element: Fire
N.A Small Intestine,
Stomach
Small Intestine,
Stomach
Digestion,
Absorption & Assimilation of food
Digestion The pitta present in the stomach and small intestine is called pachaka pitta. The intestinal digestive juice that is secreted from the villi of the small intestine is also pachaka pitta. The pachaka pitta in the stomach is a part of jathara agni. Jathara means stomach. This agni is the central fire, gastric fire, and this digestive fire in the stomach is the main agni in the body. When the gastric fire in the stomach is high and there is more secretion of hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes, the stomach becomes grouchy and creates the sensation of hunger. The pachaka pitta in the stomach and the pachaka pitta in the small intestine work together. Jathara agni is composed of pachaka pitta, prana vayu, samana vayu, and kledaka kapha. This pitta governs the digestion in the stomach within the first two hours after the ingestion of food. Then the pyloric valve opens and the food passes into the duodenum, the upper part of the small intestine. Hyperacidity, hypoglycemia, and craving for sugar, gastritis, peptic ulcer, indigestion, anorexia, and dyspepsia.
Ranjaka
Colorer

Dosha: Pitta
Element: Earth
N.A Liver,
Spleen,
Intrinsic Factor in Stomach
Liver,
Spleen,
Intrinsic Factor in Stomach
Produces bile,
Liver enzymes,
Gives color to blood,
Blood formation
Blood Ranjaka pitta in the liver gives color to all tissues. Skin color, hair color and the color of eyes are related to ranjaka pitta. Ranjaka pitta is responsible for erythrogenesis, the creation of red blood cells in the bone marrow, which are mixed with rasa dhatu, the plasma. Thus, ranjaka pitta is responsible for giving color to the blood. Ranjaka pitta in the stomach is intrinsic factor, which is responsible for the production of blood in the bone marrow. Ranjaka pitta in the spleen kills bacteria and parasites as well as produces some white blood cells (rasa dhatu), so its job is more protective. There is a functional integrity between the liver, stomach, spleen, and bone marrow. If the function of the liver is affected, the bone marrow will also be affected. If the function of the stomach is affected, it will affect the liver. In a way, the spleen and liver also have functional integrity. The job of the spleen is to filter the blood and to send unwanted, heavy, old red blood cells to the liver; the liver destroys them and separates the hemoglobin from the blood. Then the liver utilizes the hemoglobin that is liberated for the production of bile salts, pigment, and enzymes. Therefore, when the spleen is enlarged the liver may also be enlarged, and vice versa. There is a fine line between ranjaka agni, bhuta agni (element fires), and rakta agni. Ranjaka agni incorporates bhuta agni. It gives color to rasa dhatu and transforms rasa into immature (asthayi) rakta dhatu. Bhuta agni is the specialized function of ranjaka agni in the liver that converts food and other substances into their elemental components. Rakta agni does further transformation of asthayi rakta into mature (sthayi) rakta dhatu, essential to the maturation of red blood cells. There are 5 bhuta agnis: Nabhasa agni (Ether fire), Vayavya agni (Air fire), Tejo agni (Fire), Apo agni (Water fire), Parthiva agni (Earth fire). There is a relationship between ranjaka pitta and alochaka pitta, the pitta associated with the eyes. If the sclera is yellow, it is due to a disorder of ranjaka pitta and alochaka pitta. The eyes and liver are connected, and toxicity in the liver may create visual disturbance. Photophobia is sensitivity to light due to toxicity in the liver. The same thing happens if a person drinks too much alcohol. When the liver metabolizes alcohol, excess pitta is produced. Visual perception on a subtle level is also affected, because a ranjaka pitta disorder may even affect the sadhaka pitta of the brain. Hepatitis, anemia, chronic fatigue syndrome, mononucleosis. When kapha disturbs ranjaka pitta, the person may develop gallstones. If kapha is long-standing and lingers in the liver, the person may develop high cholesterol, fatty degeneration of the liver, or steatorrhea (fatty diarrhea).
Bhrajaka
Shiner

Dosha: Pitta
Element: Water
N.A Skin Whole body Maintains skin color,
Texture and temperature,
Stereognosis
Normal pigmentation of skin This pitta keeps the skin warm and is responsible for normal complexion and luster. It also helps in the processing of oils, pastes, and medications applied externally to the skin. When we apply, for instance, sandalwood or ginger paste, the agni principle of bhrajaka absorbs and assimilates the substance. The skin is a gate or door that is kept functional by bhrajaka pitta. Bhrajaka pitta works in connection with ranjaka pitta and pachaka pitta. Skin care is important in Ayurveda. Oil is absorbed through the skin and the quality of the oil penetrates deeply into the connective tissue all the way to the bone. The medium that carries and absorbs that oil is bhrajaka pitta. Eczema, dermatitis, acne, and anesthesia—loss of sense of touch, tingling, and numbness.
Tarpaka
Satisfier

Dosha: Kapha
Element: Ether
N.A Brain (white matter) Myelin Sheath,
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Subconscious thinking and emotions,
memory
Intelligence Tarpaka kapha is predominantly present in the white matter of the brain. It is thick, sticky, slimy, and soft. Tarpaka nourishes the brain cells. The liquid qualities of tarpaka kapha are present in the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid, which surround the soft brain tissue and the spinal cord. Tarpaka kapha brings energy to rasa dhatu (plasma) by way of the sweet and salty tastes, creating a feeling of happiness. If a crying child is given sugar, he becomes happy and stops crying. Another important site of tarpaka kapha is the myelin sheath, a protective sheath surrounding most nerve cells. Tarpaka kapha lubricates the sinuses and nasal cavities and is present in the spinal cord, where it governs the reflex arc. The tarpaka kapha in the spinal cord acts as a medium for the completion of the circuit for the reflex arc. If batteries are dry, nothing happens. So tarpaka kapha in the spinal cord acts like a battery solution. Tarpaka kapha helps to create neurological time, which is stimulus and response. Psychological time is thought. There is no space without time. Time is space and space is distance. If tarpaka kapha becomes thick and firm, there is crystallization, rigidity, and callousness, which create confusion. Confusion is conclusion and this conclusion is judgment that is stored in tarpaka kapha. We carry the memory of our parents' illnesses within the DNA molecules, which is tarpaka kapha. If a person’s grandfather had diabetes, taipaka kapha carries, tapaka kapha carries that memory of diabetes in the person's cells. We seek security by retaining memories and tarpaka kapha performs this task. When a child burns his hand in a fire, that memory is recorded. Now when he sees fire, he knows not to play with the flame. There is safety and security in biological memory, which is absolutely necessary for safety. We also have psychological memories of childhood suffering. Whatever treatment received from parents or teachers during the first seven years of life, stays with us through life and shapes our personality. Within tarpaka kapha there is a space beyond time and aging, which can be reached through sensitive awareness. In other words, one can avoid the DNA problems. Within that space, a person will no longer live in the past. To live in the present means to live in a timeless space. To live now means to live in eternity. To live in your relationships with these qualities of taipaka kapha is to live with God. Stroke paralysis, Parkinson’s disease, or brain tumors. Concussion, compression, or contusion may affect tarpaka kapha and change the entire personality.
Avalambaka
Supporter

Dosha: Kapha
Element: Earth
N.A Lungs,
Pleural Cavity,
Heart,
Respiratory Tract,
Spine
Heart Support,
Holds emotions,
Supports all kapha systems
Energy in Limbs Avalambaka kapha is an important kapha that supports all kapha systems in the body, functionally as well as structurally. It includes the spine as well as the lungs and heart. It carries pranic energy from the lungs to every cell, tissue, and organ. It is supportive to both the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Avalambaka kapha is present in the respiratory and cardiovascular systems, in the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. Avalambaka kapha also supports the intracostal muscles and ribs. Because of its liquid quality, avalambaka kapha helps with gaseous exchange by removing unwanted carbon dioxide from the alveoli so that oxygen can enter. In addition, avalambaka kapha provides the liquid quality within the pulmonary trunk so that oxygenated blood can be carried to the heart. Avalambaka kapha protects the lungs and alveoli, and maintains the tone of the muscular layer of the bronchi. In addition, as pericardial fluid it protects the heart muscle. Kledaka kapha and avalambaka kapha have functional integrity. Without kledaka kapha, avalambaka kapha cannot do anything. Avalambaka creates confidence, courage, and ability to face problems so that the chest is expanded. When the chest is contracted, the person is not able to cope with challenges. Psychologically, avalambaka kapha is associated with support, love, and compassion. When there is excessive grief and sadness, avalambaka kapha becomes sticky, and lung function is affected. The lungs are the seat of grief and sadness. The inferior quality of avalambaka kapha may create pulmonary changes and collapse of the bronchial lumen. Bronchitis, asthma, bronchiectasis, pneumonia, and emphysema are all due to dysfunction of avalambaka kapha.
Kledaka
Wetter

Dosha: Kapha
Element: Fire
N.A Stomach,
Gastrointestinal Tract
Stomach Gastric secretion,
Digestion and absorption,
Nourishes rasa
Moistening of food in stomach Kledaka kapha is present in the gastrointestinal tract. It is liquid, soft, slightly oily, and slimy. This kapha creates a protective lining as the gastric mucous membrane. This membrane can be destroyed when food is consumed. Cayenne pepper, curry pepper, and alcohol dissolve the mucous membrane. Within 72 hours, kledaka kapha provides a fresh, new mucosal lining to protect the wall of the stomach. The stomach is divided into the greater curvature and the lesser curvature. The lesser curvature is the acid bearing area that secretes more hydrochloric acid and other digestive juices, which are pachaka pitta. The greater curvature, or fundus, produces more kledaka kapha. The lesser curvature of the stomach is near the liver, a pitta organ. The greater curvature is near the spleen, whose function is to filter blood. Sleeping on the left side suppresses kapha and builds pitta. The greater curvature of the stomach goes down and the lesser curvature is pressed toward the liver, creating more acid secretion. People who sleep on the left side can increase digestive fire but may have hyperacidity. People who sleep on the right side can calm pitta but might induce kapha aggravation, leading to sinus congestion. Sleeping on the right side brings more spleen energy, while sleeping on the left side suppresses spleen energy and builds more liver energy. When you sleep on the right side, the stomach empties earlier, because the pyloric valve is on the right. However, the food leaving the stomach may not be fully digested. Optimally, one should wait three or more hours after a meal before going to sleep so the stomach has emptied completely. With excess kledaka: Obesity, obsessive eating habits, hyperglycemia, diabetes, high cholesterol. With insufficient kledaka: hypoglycemia, peptic ulcer.
Bodhaka
Perceiver

Dosha: Kapha
Element: Air
N.A Mouth Mouth Salivary secretions,
Taste,
Swallowing,
Speech
Taste It is located in the mouth and is represented by saliva, which is liquid, sticky, sweet, and slightly unctuous. The liquid quality of bodhaka kapha keeps the mouth wet and soft. The agni of bodhaka kapha, called bodhaka agni, is responsible for maintaining the oral temperature. Any substance that goes into the mouth causes secretion of bodhaka kapha. Bodhaka kapha also lubricates the tonsils, pharynx, and vocal cords. The epiglottis is well lubricated by bodhaka kapha so that foodstuffs can slide over the epiglottis directly into the esophagus without entering the trachea. The pharynx leads to the esophagus and the larynx leads to the lungs. This space within the throat is moistened, and the posterior wall of the pharynx is also well lubricated, by bodhaka kapha. Kledaka kapha works in conjunction with bodhaka kapha in the digestion of protein, starch, and carbohydrates. Thick saliva indicates dental calculi, diabetes, worms, or Parkinson’s disease. Excess saliva or a sticky mouth may also indicate dehydration or pre-diabetes, because stickiness of the mouth is due to sweet saliva. In a 24-hour period, we swallow about one pint of saliva and in this way bodhaka kapha nourishes kledaka kapha. In addition, through saliva bodhaka kapha helps to maintain water electrolyte balance.
Shleshaka
Embracer

Dosha: Kapha
Element: Water
N.A Joints Joints Lubricates joints (synovial fluid),
Nourishes bones
Lubrication of joints Shleshaka kapha is thick, sticky, liquid, oily and slimy. It is present all over the body, and especially in the joint spaces, where two bones come together. It lubricates the joints and nourishes the articular (joint) surfaces and cartilages to promote easy movement. One of the important functions of shleshaka kapha is to support the skeletal system and to strengthen the ligaments. Degenerative arthritis, Rheumatoid arthritis.

Dhatus

Go to top
Name Functions Superior Byproduct Inferior Byproduct Description Causes of Increase Causes of Decrease Signs of Increase Signs of Decrease Signs of Disturbed Signs of Disturbed by Vata Signs of Disturbed by Pitta Signs of Disturbed by Kapha
Rasa
Plasma, Blood Serum, Lymph

Preparation Time: 5 days
Size: 9 anjali
Nutrition,
Affection,
Immunity
Top layer of skin,
Lactation,
Menstruation
Kapha (Poshaka kapha) Rasa dhatu is the first and foremost juice of all life—from the amoeba to the human being and is associated with plasma, serum, and lymph. Ahara rasa is the immature form of rasa dhatu and forms within 12 hours of the intake of food. Rasa agni, the fire principle of rasa, transforms ahara rasa into Mature Rasa and Immature Rakta. This transformation, from food to plasma, takes five days.

Rasa dhatu contains both hot and cold molecules. The hot molecules are red blood cells and the cold molecules are white blood cells. Rasa—which includes white blood cells—and rakta (red blood cells) function together. White blood cells and red blood cells bathe and breathe in plasma, which is rasa dhatu. Plasma also includes blood serum and lymph, the circulating fluid of the lymphatic system. In fact, the entire lymphatic system is part of rasa dhatu.

Kledaka Kapha, Vyana Vayu, and a small amount of Pachaka Pitta are present in rasa dhatu. Because of the presence of Vyana vayu, rasa dhatu is mobile, active, and keeps flowing. Pachaka pitta gives rasa a yellowish color. Without pachaka pitta, which contains agni, the transformation of asthayi (immature/raw) into sthayi (mature) rasa is impossible.
Excessive water intake, Hydrophilic substances, such as salt and watermelon, Dairy products - such as milk, cheese and yogurt, Alcoholic drinks, Sleeping during the daytime, Insufficient exercise, Repression of emotions. Insufficient water intake, Profuse perspiration, Eating dry fruits, Post-influenza dehydration, Leftover food, Nausea, Hot/Dry Spicy food, Vomiting, Excessive amounts of pungent, bitter and astringent substances, Diarrhea, Fluid loss, Beans, Polyuria (excess urination), Excessive exercise, Over-exposure to hot sun, Emotional reactions, such as anger and fear.
  • Heaviness in heart
  • Clogged channels
  • Excessive salivation
  • Edema and swelling
  • High blood pressure
  • Kapha accumulation
  • Low agni
  • Lymph congestion
  • Nausea
  • Pallor
  • Poor appetite
  • Repeated colds, cough, bronchitis
  • Slow metabolism
  • Increased weight
  • Cardiac pain
  • Heart palpitations
  • Emptiness in heart
  • Anemia
  • Dehydration
  • Low blood pressure
  • Dizziness
  • Lack of faith
  • Dry rough scaly skin
  • Weak/Discomfort
  • Dry cracked lips
  • Weight loss
  • Excessive thirst
  • Hypersensitivity to loud noise
  • Sunken anterior fontanel, eyes
  • Involuntary shaking
  • Fever
  • Heart disorders
  • Anemia
  • Darkness around eyes
  • Excessive salivation
  • Fatigue, Bodyache
  • Lack of clarity and perception
  • Lack of proper taste
  • Nausea
  • Premature aging
  • Premature hair loss
  • Sexual debility
  • Stupor or blackout
  • Unnatural cravings
  • Fever with chills
  • Palpitations and tachycardia
  • Dry skin
  • Dark skin coloration
  • Weak/Discomfort
  • Dizziness
  • Generalized pain
  • Hypersensitivity to loud noise
  • Dehydration
  • Excess thirst
  • Goosebumps
  • High fever
  • Skin problems
  • Chemical sensitivities
  • Tonsillitis
  • Appendicitis
  • Red or yellow skin
  • Sensitive skin
  • Melanoma
  • Moles
  • Hypoglycemia.
  • Low fever
  • Pallor
  • Cold, Cough, Catarrh, Sinus congestion
  • Lymph congestion
  • Lymphoma
  • Edema
  • Excess saliva/mucus
  • Hay fever
  • Cold, clammy skin
  • Fungal infections
  • Hyperglycemia
Rakta
Red blood cells

Preparation Time: 10 days
Size: 8 anjali
Life function,
Oxygenation,
Enthusiasm
Blood vessels,
granulation tissues,
Small tendons and sinews
Pitta (Poshaka Pitta) Rakta dhatu is the red blood cells in the heart and blood vessels, and it provides a bridge between the body’s internal and external environments by carrying nutrients to the tissues. It transports nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract, prana from the lungs and vyana from the heart to the cells of the body. The waste products from the cells in the form of carbon dioxide are carried to the lungs. Other waste products are carried by the blood to other excretory organs and are related to apana vayu.

Although rasa and rakta dhatus are integrated and function together, they are considered separate systems in Ayurvedic theory. From ahara rasa (the nutrient precursor), it takes five days for Mature Rasa dhatu to be formed. Mature rasa and Immature/Raw Rakta are formed at the same time. After 10 days, Mature rakta is formed.

Rasa and rakta dhatus regulate temperature by distributing heat from the skeletal muscles and active organs to all body parts. This distribution of heat is an important function of rasa and rakta dhatus together.

Ranjaka pitta is present in rakta dhatu, as is Prana Vayu and Vyana Vayu, and together they are responsible for circulation.
Low dhatu agni, Large amounts of jaggary, Hot spicy food and drinks, Excessive consumption of oily or fried, Iron or folic acid supplements, Meat, Alcohol, especially red wine, Intravenous blood transfusion, Sour substances, Working under the hot sun, Anger, hate and envy. Anemia, Severe blood loss in traumatic situation, Iron, folic acid or vitamin B12 deficiency, Pinworms or hookworms, Hemorrhage, Excessive menstrual bleeding, Hemorrhoids, Insufficient sunlight.
  • Full blood vessels
  • Visible capillaries
  • Vein swelling
  • Increased pitta
  • Bleeding disorders
  • Skin conditions
  • High blood pressure
  • Red face
  • Red palms, soles
  • Enlarged liver/spleen
  • Weakness
  • Vertigo
  • Black-bluish bruises
  • High red blood cells
  • Bone marrow dysfunction
  • Empty blood vessels
  • Anemia
  • Pale skin, lips, tongue, nails
  • Cold hands, feet
  • Loss of luster
  • Lack of enthusiasm
  • Dry, rough, scaly or cracked skin
  • Breathlessness on exertion
  • Low blood pressure
  • Children eat clay
  • Blood disorders
  • Inflammation and redness of the skin
  • Skin diseases
  • Bleeding disorders
  • Prominent blood vessels
  • Swelling on anus, penis, mouth, tongue
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Tumors
  • Jaundice
  • Absence/Loss of hair
  • Multiple moles
  • Swelling caused by a broken blood vessel
  • Poor circulation
  • Microcytic Anemia
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Empty blood vessels
  • Blood clots
  • Pale skin
  • Dry, cracked skin
  • Capillary pulsation
  • Heart palpitations
  • Mitral valve prolapse
  • Aneurysm
  • Gout (cold gout in toes)
  • Varicose veins without clots
  • Skin problems
  • Microcytic Anemia
  • Burning hands, feet
  • Jaundice
  • Gout (hot gout in fingers)
  • Autoimmune disease
  • Sensitive liver
  • Bleeding disorders
  • Piles, Red eyes
  • Boils, Mouth ulcers
  • Bleeding gums
  • High red blood cells
  • High blood pressure
  • Myeloid leukemia
  • Swelling with blood clot in Veins
  • Edema
  • Macrocytic Anemia
  • Pale skin
  • Stagnation of blood
  • Hypertension
  • High cholesterol
  • Congestive heart failure
  • Leukemia
  • Enlarged liver/spleen
  • Glaucoma
  • Gangrene
  • Diabetes
  • Varicose veins with thrombus
Mamsa
Muscle

Preparation Time: 15 days
Size: It varies
Plastering,
Form,
Movement,
Support,
Strength,
Protection
Six layers of skin,
Subcutaneous fat
Ear wax,
Nasal crust,
Sebaceous secretions,
Tooth tartar,
Smegma
The next dhatu is mamsa. The fully processed sthayi (mature) mamsa is created from asthayi (immature/raw) mamsa, which is formed at the same time as sthayi rakta. The transformation from ahara rasa to sthayi mamsa takes about 15 days. Mamsa dhatu is the muscle tissue. The muscular system accounts for nearly half of the body weight. Mamsa dhatu is closely connected to the tonsils; they regulate the immunity of mamsa dhatu.

Low dhatu agni, Kapha foods, such as wheat and dairy products, Heavy food, Excessive consumption of food, Red meat, Sleeping during daytime, Suddenly stopping heavy exercise, High protein diet. Excessive exercise with insufficient nutrition, Vata provoking diet, Old age, Chronic illness and consumptive diseases, Multiple sclerosis, Neuromuscular disorders, Malabsorption, Lack of protein
  • Excessive muscle growth particularly cheeks, lips, tongue, thighs, penis, arms and legs
  • Increased ear wax, nasal crust, sebaceous secretions, tooth tartar, smegma
  • Heavy arms, legs
  • Breathlessness on walking
  • Overweight, Fatigue
  • Muscle flaccidity
  • Muscle debility
  • Loss of muscle tone, power
  • Lack of coordination
  • Myoma
  • Uterine fibroids
  • Fibrocystic breasts
  • Muscle atrophy, wasting
  • Muscle rigidity
  • Loss of muscle
  • Dry skin
  • Muscle pains
  • Extreme weight loss
  • Receding gums
  • Sunken cheeks and eyes
  • Prominent blood vessels with poor tone
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Dislocation of joints
  • Lack of confidence
  • TMJ disorders
  • Lack of luster
  • Extreme fear of achieving goals
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Warts
  • Repeated tonsillitis
  • Ganglionic cyst on muscle tendons
  • Elongated uvula
  • Disease of the lymph nodes in neck
  • Muscle abscess
  • Muscle pain, stiffness, weakness, fatigue, tremors, tics, spasms, twitching, rigidity
  • Convulsions
  • Emaciation
  • Muscle wasting
  • Muscle hypertonia
  • Loss of power
  • Lack of coordination
  • Craving for protein foods
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Incontinence
  • Receding gums
  • Paralysis
  • Paresis
  • Foot drop
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Boils
  • Abscesses
  • Bleeding gums
  • Tendonitis
  • Bursitis
  • Muscle fatigue
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Chronic fatigue
  • High blood pressure
  • Myeloid leukemia
  • Thrombophlebitis
  • Excess ear wax and nasal crust
  • Tumors
  • Muscle hypertrophy
  • Muscle hypotonia and flaccidity
  • Matted lymph glands
  • Cystic swelling
  • Fibrocystic lumps
  • Fibroid tumors
  • Dental tartar
Meda
Adipose

Preparation Time: 20 days
Size: 2 anjali
Lubrication,
Bulk to body,
Insulation,
Beauty,
Personal love
Tendons,
sinews,
ligaments,
flat muscles
Sweat Meda is adipose tissue, a loose connective tissue that includes fat, phospholipids, steroids such as cholesterol, and other types of lipids. Meda dhatu is connected to the adrenals. Fatty, fried food Excessive water intake, Hydrophilic substances - such as salt, yogurt and watermelon, Insufficient exercise, Sedentary lifestyle, Underactive thyroid, Low Mamsa and Meda agni. Excessive exercise, Chronic consumptive diseases, Insufficient water intake, Insufficient oil in the diet, Lack of food, Poverty, Fear, anxiety and nervousness.
  • Underactive thyroid
  • Obesity
  • Lethargy
  • Pain in joints
  • Breathlessness on exertion
  • Slow metabolism
  • Profuse sweating without exercise
  • Fatty tumors
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • High triglycerides
  • Gallstones
  • Low libido
  • Oily skin
  • Heavy, pendulous breasts
  • Diminished air entry
  • Cough and chest pain
  • Diabetes syndrome
  • Double chin, plump cheeks, pot-belly abdomen
  • Edema and swelling
  • Poor circulation
  • Fatty degenerative changes in liver
  • Hyperactive thyroid
  • Dryness
  • Cracking joints
  • Emaciation
  • Osteoporosis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Pain in lumbar region of back
  • Stiffness
  • Malaise
  • Exhaustion
  • Sunken abdomen
  • Deep sunken eyes and sunken cheeks
  • Emaciated breasts
  • Insufficient retrobulbar fat (behind the eyeball)
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Floating spleen
  • Subjective feeling of emptiness
  • Fatty tumors
  • Obesity or emaciation
  • Protruded eyes
  • Sebaceous cysts
  • Fatty diarrhea
  • Enlarged lips
  • Abnormal cholesterol or triglyceride levels
  • Obstruction of bile/pancreatic duct
  • Diabetes syndrome
  • Share many of the same signs and symptoms of Mamsa dushti
  • Lack of lubrication and sweat
  • Low urination
  • Dry skin and feces
  • Lumbago
  • Craving for fatty foods
  • Premature aging
  • Enlarged, palpable spleen
  • Emaciation
  • Weight loss
  • Insomnia
  • Cracking joints
  • Osteoporosis
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Profuse sweating
  • Cystitis
  • Thirst
  • Dizziness
  • Sensitive to fatty foods
  • Fatty diarrhea
  • Intolerance and irritability
  • Adrenal exhaustion
  • Urinary/kidney infections
  • Sensitive breasts
  • Thrombophlebitis
  • Overweight
  • Cold sweat
  • Excess urination
  • Obesity
  • Slow metabolism
  • High cholesterol
  • Gallstones
  • Lipomas
  • Low libido
  • Foul smell
  • Diabetes
  • Pre-diabetes (excess thirst and urination, sweet taste in mouth, goosebumps upon last drops of urine
Asthi
Bone

Preparation Time: 25 days
Size: Approx. 365 bones
Support,
Structure,
Protection of vital organs
Teeth,
Cartilage
Hair,
Nails
It is the densest tissue in the body. This dhatu also conducts sound waves that aid in hearing. Asthi dhatu also acts as an excretory tissue. The unwanted molecules of toxic heavy metals, such as arsenic, mercury, and lead are retained in asthi dhatu, and the body tries to eliminate them in the nails and hair. In hair analysis, some people show excessive amounts of these metals, which come from the bone.

Predominately made of Earth, Air and Water.
Low dhatu agni, Metabolic bone disorders, Endocrine disorders, Thyroid and parathyroid disorders Kapha disorders, Excessive consumption of calcium, magnesium, zinc and other minerals. Lack of calcium, magnesium, zinc and other minerals, Heavy metal toxicity, Exposure to radiation, Malabsorption, Trauma, Excessive exercise, Too much jogging or jumping, Vata disorders, Menopause, Chronic illness (TB, typhoid, etc.), Insufficient milk during childhood, Broad-spectrum antibiotics.
  • Teeth: Extra, Large, Protruded, Impacted wisdom
  • Bony tumors
  • Bony protuberances
  • Calcaneal spurs
  • Calcinosis
  • Contracture of joints
  • Joints larger than bone shafts
  • Osteosclerosis
  • Spinal misalignment due to wrong growth
  • Abnormal convex curve of lumbar spine
  • Excessive growth of hair and nails
  • Hair/Tooth loss
  • Cracked nails/teeth
  • Loss of beard and moustache
  • Fatigue
  • Loose joints
  • Dry/rough/brittle nails
  • Cavities in teeth
  • Pains in bones/joints
  • Osteoporosis
  • Diminished bone density
  • Arthritis
  • Spontaneous fractures
  • Shortened height
  • Osteopenia
  • Spinal misalignment
  • Cavities in teeth
  • Loose/broken teeth
  • Tooth/Bone pain
  • Osteoporosis
  • Arthritis
  • Hair loss
  • Nail deformity
  • Spinal misalignment
  • Abnormal growth of bones/cartilage/teeth
  • Twisted tooth
  • Blackish or yellow discoloration of teeth
  • Repeated fungal infections of nails
  • Bony tumor
  • Bone inflammation
  • Tuberculosis of bone
  • Cold abscess
  • Cracking joints
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Rheumatoid arthritis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Spontaneous fractures
  • Scoliosis
  • Bone and joint pain
  • Brittle hair, teeth and nails
  • Split hair ends
  • Cracked nail cuticles
  • Tooth cavities
  • Impacted wisdom teeth
  • Irregular thyroid function
  • Inflammatory arthritis
  • Periostitis
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Bone abscess
  • Alopecia
  • Hair loss
  • Nail infections
  • Tooth abscesses
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Osteoma
  • Joint swelling, stiffness and calcification
  • Bone spurs
  • Scoliosis
  • Kyphosis
  • Lordosis
  • Excess hair growth
  • Extra teeth
  • Impacted wisdom teeth
  • Hypothyroidism
Majja
Bone marrow, Nervous tissue

Preparation Time: 35 days
Size: 2 anjali
Reproduction,
Produce ojas,
Emotional release
Lacrimal secretions Oily secretions in eyes Majja dhatu includes both the nerve tissue and the bone marrow. Bone marrow is a soft jelly-like tissue within the cavity of the bone. Every bone has a little foramen, a small hole, through which the nerves and blood vessels enter the bone tissue. Therefore, the bone tissue has a sense of pain, pressure and position of the joint. Whenever your joint is flexed or extended, you know its position because of majja dhatu.

Majja dhatu is the seat of the conscious and subconscious mind. The frontal lobe of the brain governs the emotional brain. According to Ayurveda, the superior area governs vata, the middle governs pitta and the inferior governs kapha. Anxiety, fear and nervousness are located more in the vata area. Anger, judgment and criticism are in the pitta area. Attachment, greed and possessiveness are found in the kapha area.
Excessive sleep, Sedentary lifestyle, Excessive fats and oils in the diet, Excessive water intake, Kapha aggravating foods. Vata-provoking diet, Overexertion, Excessive exercise, Emotional reactions, such as fear and anxiety, Prolonged exposure to radiation, Heavy metal toxicity, Malabsorption or malnutrition, Trauma, Alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and other drugs, Incompatible food combining, Broken bones, Cerebral concussion/compression, Laceration of the brain, Head or spinal injury, Whiplash.
  • Heaviness of eyes
  • Generalized heaviness in body
  • Sluggishness
  • Excessive sleep
  • Accumulation of fluid in ventricles of brain
  • Thickened nerves
  • Tumors on peripheral nerves
  • Bone marrow tumor
  • Nerve, Bone tumor
  • Pineal gland tumor
  • Pituitary gland tumor
  • Space-occupying tumor in brain
  • Increased emotional reactions
  • Increased bone density
  • Heavy bones and joints
  • Fatigue
  • Osteoporosis
  • Arthritis
  • Anemia
  • Sexual debility
  • Insomnia
  • ADHD
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Amnesia and poor memory
  • Lack of understanding
  • Poor communication
  • Diminished emotional responses
  • Mind becomes empty
  • Feeling of emptiness in bones
  • Bone, Joint pain
  • Dizziness
  • Blackouts or coma
  • Neuromuscular dystrophy
  • Loss of muscle tone
  • Phobias
  • Depression
  • Low endurance
  • Lusterless eyes
  • Dark circles eyes
  • Sciatica
  • Tingling/Numbness
  • Neurological disorders
  • Low libido
  • Premature ejaculation
  • Cracking, dislocation of joints
  • Bone, Joint pain
  • Dizziness
  • Blackouts or coma
  • Insomnia
  • Demyelination disorders
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Paralytic stroke
  • Epilepsy, ADHD
  • Brain inflammation
  • Bone infection
  • Tingling, numbness, tremors, spasms
  • Convulsions
  • Joint pain
  • Forgetfulness and poor memory
  • Insomnia
  • Objective dizziness
  • Feeling of emptiness
  • Spaciness
  • Neiralgia
  • Blackout
  • Fear, anxiety, nervousness, insecurity
  • Racing mind
  • Tinnitus
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Insomnia
  • Subjective dizziness
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Fever
  • Hiccough
  • Syncope
  • Coma
  • Meningitis
  • Cheyne-Stokes respiration
  • Herpes and shingles
  • Burning foot syndrome
  • Judgment, anger, jealousy
  • Depression
  • Demyelination disorders
  • Hypersomnia
  • Protruded eye
  • Heaviness in eyes
  • Retrobulbar tumors
  • Space-occupying tumors
  • Hydrocephalus
  • Pineal or pituitary tumors
  • Connective tissue of nerve tumor
  • Sluggishness
  • Lethargy
  • Melancholy, depression
Shukra and Artava
Reproductive

Preparation Time: 40 days
Size: Half anjali
Reproduction,
Produce ojas,
Emotional release
Ojas None Shukra dhatu is the male and artava the female reproductive tissue. Both male and female reproductive tissues have as their primary function the continuation of human life. Low dhatu agni, Sedentary lifestyle, Lack of exercise, Rich, oily foods, Dairy products, Meat, Heavy food, Excessive water intake, Attachment, greed and possessiveness, Anger, irritability, envy or jealousy, Steroidal and hormonal therapy, Pitta aggravating factors, Meat and fish, Working in a hot room or under the sun. Low dhatu agni, Excessive exercise, Fear, anxiety, worry and nervousness, Intense joy, excitation, happiness, fear, anxiety, grid and sadness, Chronic illness, Excessive dry, hot, spicy food, Lack of good fats in the diet, Dehydration, Parasites, Trauma, Venereal diseases, Over-indulgence in sex, Excessive masturbation, Vata aggravation, Anemia, Severe blood loss.
  • Increased sex desire
  • Excess production of semen with low count
  • Increased prostatic secretions
  • Premature ejaculation/orgasm
  • Prostatic calculi
  • Dreams of sex
  • Heavy menses
  • Irritability
  • Hot flashes
  • Nausea
  • Acne and skin rashes
  • Feeling critical of everything
  • Swollen, tender breasts
  • Sensitive nipples
  • Foul metallic smell of vagina/menses
  • Pain in ovaries or fallopian tubes
  • Paleness, Anemia
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Dry mouth
  • Palpitations
  • Lower backache
  • Sexual debility
  • Low sex desire
  • Sterility
  • Pain during coitus
  • Fear of sex
  • Impotence
  • Premature ejaculation
  • Inability to reach full orgasm
  • Scanty semen with low count
  • Feels cold
  • Insufficient ovulation
  • Painful ovulation
  • Scanty, Painful menses
  • Sexual debility
  • Improper erection
  • Premature ejaculation/orgasm
  • Infertility
  • Conception can create miscarriage
  • Premature birth of child
  • Genetic disorders
  • Emotionally disturbed relationship
  • Disturbed ojas
  • Psychological disorders
  • Venereal diseases
  • Uterine fibroma
  • Endometriosis
  • Scanty/Painful/Heavy menses
  • Low ojas
  • Absence of sperm
  • Low sperm count
  • Low libido
  • Light, empty, cold testicles
  • Tactile premature ejaculation
  • Oligomenorrhea
  • Dysmenorrhea
  • Irregular menstrual cycle
  • Premature orgasm
  • Fear, anxiety
  • Painful intercourse
  • Cystocele
  • Burnt ojas
  • Hot, tender testicles
  • Orchitis
  • Epididymitis
  • Blood in the semen
  • Prostatitis
  • Burning pain during ejaculation
  • Thermal premature ejaculation
  • Menorrhagia
  • Endometritis
  • Burning pain
  • Irritability
  • Sensitive nipples
  • Premenstrual tenderness of breasts
  • Raw ojas
  • Cold, heavy testicles
  • Excess desire for sex
  • Semenolith
  • Prostatic calculi
  • Enlarged prostate
  • Emotional premature ejaculation
  • Polymenorrhea
  • Prolonged, slow menstrual cycle
  • Premenstrual enlargement of breasts and edema
  • Leukorrhea
  • Endometriosis
  • Cystic ovaries
  • Fibroid tumors

Ayurvedic Medicines

Go to top
In order of power they can be arranged as Prabhava > Virya > Vipaka > Rasa
Medicine Name Prabhava/Special Action Virya/Potency Vipaka/Post Digestion Taste Rasa/Taste Guna/Quality Karma/Actions TherapeuticUsages
Flaxseed/Linseed
Alsi
Linum Usitatissimum
Atasi, Uma

V-P+K+

Special Action:Alleviates vitiated blood.

Warning: It reduces semen and eye-sight.
Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Madhura) Sweet,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Guru) Heavy,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous
(Vaataghna) Removing disorders of Wind (Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Prameha) Urinary disorders (Increased frequency and turbidity of urine),
(Raktadosa/Raktisara/Raktavikara) Vitiation of blood and its components,
(Siroroga) Diseases of head,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation
Cardamom - Green
Elaichi - Chhoti
Elettaria Cardamomum
Ela, Suksmaila

V*P*K-

Cold Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet,
(Katu) Pungent
(Laghu) Light (Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Mutra Virechaniya) Diuretic,
(Anulomana) Downward Vayu movement,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste,
(Rocana) Stimulate appetite
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Arsa) Piles,
(Mutrakrcchra) Dysuria,
(Aruci) Tastelessness
Fennel Seeds
Saunf
Foeniculum Vulgare Miller
Misreya, Madhurika

V-P-K-

Special Action:Cures weakened digestive fire.

Cold Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet,
(Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Laghu) Light,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Anulomana) Downward Vayu movement,
(Balya) Strength Promoter,
(Amadosahara) Restorer of impaired digestion and metabolism
(Kasa) Cough,
(Sula) Pain,
(Agnimandya) Digestive impairment,
(Pravahika) Dysentery,
(Raktadosa/Raktisara/Raktavikara) Vitiation of blood and its components,
(Arsa) Piles
Carom seeds/Bishop's weed
Ajwain
Trachyspermum Ammi
Yavani, Dipya

V-P+K-

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Laghu) Light,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Krmighna) Anthelmintic/Parasiticide,
(Sulahara) Pain killer,
(Anulomana) Downward Vayu movement,
(Pacana) Carminative,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste,
(Rocana) Stimulate appetite
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Sula) Pain,
(Gulma) Phantom Tumor,
(Udararoga) Diseases of abdomen (Ascites),
(Adhmana) Flatulance with gurgling sound,
(Anaha) Distension of abdomen due to obstruction to passage of urine and stools,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation
Black Pepper
Kali Mirch
Piper Nigrum
Marica

V-P+K-

Special Action:Green variety of Marica is sweeet in vipika and heavy. It eliminates Kapha. It does not increase Pitta.
White variety of Marica is neither hot nor cold in potency.

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Laghu) Light,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Chedana) Chedana,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Pacana) Carminative,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Chedi) Cleanses Channel,
(Jantunasana) Anti biotic,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste,
(Medohara) Fat Remove
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Sula) Pain,
(Tvagroga) Skin disease,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation
Clove
Laung
Syzygium Aromaticum
Lavanga

V*P-K-

Special Action:Useful for Heart and Eyes.

Cold Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Laghu) Light,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Sulahara) Pain killer,
(Pacana) Carminative,
(Kasahara) Expectorant,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Ksaya) Phthisis/Wasting,
(Sula) Pain,
(Amlapitta/Ajirna) Dyspepsia/Hyperacidity,
(Hikka) Hiccup,
(Vibandha) Constipation,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Adhmana) Flatulance with gurgling sound,
(Anaha) Distension of abdomen due to obstruction to passage of urine and stools,
(Trsna) Thirst
Cinnamon
Dalchini
Cinnamomum Zeylanicum/Cassia
Tvak

V-P+K-

Description: There are 3 main varities of Cinnamon:
1. Cinnamomum Cassia (Indian/Chinese). It is the perfect for medicines. Its has a thick and harder bark. It is also used topically as anti-inflammatory agent in traditional systems of medicine.
2. Cinnamomum Zeylanicum/Verum/True/Ceylon. It has a thinner bark than Cassia cinnamon. It is sweeter than Cassia cinnamon and less bitter in taste.
3. Cinnamomum Tamala (Indian): It has a thick bark which is not very pungent. When it is ground with water it becomes mucilaginous. Its leaves are called Tejpatra.

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Madhura) Sweet,
(Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Laghu) Light,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Rucya) Stimulate taste,
(Visaghna) Anti poison
(Hrdroga) Heart diseases,
(Pinasa) Chronic Rhinitis,
(Arsa) Piles,
(Trsna) Thirst,
(Basti roga) Diseases due to urinary system,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation,
(Kanthamukharoga) Diseases of Mouth and Throat,
(Mukhasosa) Dry Mouth,
(Sukradosa) Diseases of Semen
Indian Cinnamon
Tejpatra
Cinnamomum Tamala
Tvakpatra, Tamala

V-P*K-

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Madhura) Sweet,
(Katu) Pungent
(Laghu) Light,
(Tikshna) Sharp,
(Pichchila) Cloudy/Slimy
(Rucya) Stimulate taste (Pinasa) Chronic Rhinitis,
(Arsa) Piles,
(Aruci) Tastelessness,
(Hrllasa) Angina pectoris (Heart issue)
Caraway Black
Jira - Kala/Shah
Carum Carvi
Krsnajiraka

V-P+K-

Special Action:It is Constipative.

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent (Laghu) Light,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous
(Jvarahara) Febrifuge/Anti Pyretic/Refrigerant,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Pacana) Carminative,
(Stambhana) Constipative,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic,
(Sangrahi/Grahi) Digestive Stimulant, Carminative, and Constipative,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste,
(Sothahara) Anti Inflammatory
(Agnimandya) Digestive impairment,
(Grahaniroga) Malabsorption syndrome/Diseases of Small Intestine,
(Gulma) Phantom Tumor,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Adhmana) Flatulance with gurgling sound,
(Jirnajvara) Fever (Chronic),
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation,
(Uterus Clean) Cleans uterus
Cumin Seed
Jira - Chitta
Cuminum Cyminum
Svetajiraka, Ajaji

V-P+K-

Special Action:It is Constipative.

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent (Laghu) Light,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Krmighna) Anthelmintic/Parasiticide,
(Pacana) Carminative,
(Stambhana) Constipative,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic,
(Sangrahi/Grahi) Digestive Stimulant, Carminative, and Constipative,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste,
(Garbhashaya Vishodhana) Uterus Function Improver,
(Pittala) Bilious
(Agnimandya) Digestive impairment,
(Gulma) Phantom Tumor,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Adhmana) Flatulance with gurgling sound,
(Atisara) Diarrhoea,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation,
(Uterus Clean) Cleans uterus
Small Fennel
Jira - Mota Kala (Kalonji)
Nigella Sativa
Kalvanji, Upakuncika

V-P+K-

Special Action:It is Constipative.

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent (Laghu) Light,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Krmighna) Anthelmintic/Parasiticide,
(Pacana) Carminative,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Stambhana) Constipative,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic,
(Sangrahi/Grahi) Digestive Stimulant, Carminative, and Constipative,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste,
(Garbhashaya Vishodhana) Uterus Function Improver,
(Pittala) Bilious,
(Medhya) Brain Tonic
(Gulma) Phantom Tumor,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Adhmana) Flatulance with gurgling sound,
(Atisara) Diarrhoea,
(Uterus Clean) Cleans uterus
Fenugreek
Methi seed
Trigonella Foenum-graecum Linn
Methika

V-P-K-

Special Action:It specifically decreases Vayu.

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Tikka) Bitter (Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous (Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste,
(Recana) Laxative
(Prameha) Urinary disorders (Increased frequency and turbidity of urine),
(Sula) Pain,
(Jvara) Fever,
(Grahaniroga) Malabsorption syndrome/Diseases of Small Intestine,
(Gulma) Phantom Tumor,
(Vibandha) Constipation,
(Arsa) Piles,
(Aruci) Tastelessness,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation,
(Sukradosa) Diseases of Semen
Coriander, Cilantro
Dhania
Coriandrum Sativum Linn
Dhanyaka

V-P-K-

Special Action:Green dhania leaves are similar in properties to dried dhania. It has sweet taste. Specially, it alleviates/decreases Pitta. So, Green Coriander is NOT tridosha.

Warning: It reduces virility. It causes constipation.
Hot Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet,
(Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Laghu) Light,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Mutra Virechaniya) Diuretic,
(Pacana) Carminative,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Stambhana) Constipative,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic,
(Sangrahi/Grahi) Digestive Stimulant, Carminative, and Constipative,
(Rocana) Stimulate appetite
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Jvara) Fever,
(Amlapitta/Ajirna) Dyspepsia/Hyperacidity,
(Raktadosa/Raktisara/Raktavikara) Vitiation of blood and its components,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Arsa) Piles,
(Daha) Burning Sensation,
(Atisara) Diarrhoea,
(Trsna) Thirst,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation
Saffron
Kesar
Crocus Sativus
Kunkuma

V-P-K-

Special Action:Happiness, It is constipative.

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous (Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Varnya) Complexion Promoter,
(Jantunasana) Anti biotic,
(Visaghna) Anti poison,
(Harsana) Exhilaration
(Kasa) Cough,
(Nertaroga/Drstiroga/Aksiroga) Eye disease,
(Vranas) Ulcer,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Mutraghat) Urinary obstruction,
(Udavarta) Upward movement of gases,
(Siroroga) Diseases of head,
(Suryavarta) Sinusitis,
(Kantharoga) Diseases of throat,
(Vyanga) Pigmentation disorder,
(Sidma) Pityriasis versicolor,
(Ardhava Bhedaka) Migraine,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation
Turmeric
Haldi
Curcuma Longa
Haridra, Nisa

V*P-K-

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous (Krmighna) Anthelmintic/Parasiticide,
(Varnya) Complexion Promoter,
(Kushthaghna) Cure Skin Diseases.,
(Visaghna) Anti poison
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Prameha) Urinary disorders (Increased frequency and turbidity of urine),
(Pandu) Anaemia,
(Sopha) Oedema,
(Pinasa) Chronic Rhinitis,
(Vranas) Ulcer,
(Apaci) Chronic Lymphadenopathy/Scrofula,
(Meha) Excessive flow of urine,
(Tvagroga) Skin disease,
(Sitapitta) Urticaria,
(Madhumeha) Diabetes
Ginger Root Dried
Adrak Dried/Sund
Zingiber Officinale Roxb
Sunthi, Nagara

V-P*K-

Special Action:Promotes voice and sex desire.

Hot Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Katu) Pungent (Laghu) Light,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Anulomana) Downward Vayu movement,
(Pacana) Carminative,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste,
(Amadosahara) Restorer of impaired digestion and metabolism
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Sula) Pain,
(Hrdroga) Heart diseases,
(Agnimandya) Digestive impairment,
(Pandu) Anaemia,
(Sopha) Oedema,
(Vibandha) Constipation,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Udararoga) Diseases of abdomen (Ascites),
(Arsa) Piles,
(Adhmana) Flatulance with gurgling sound,
(Anaha) Distension of abdomen due to obstruction to passage of urine and stools,
(Amavata) Rheumatism,
(Slipada) Filariasis
Ginger Root Green
Adrak Fresh
Zingiber Officinale Rosc
Ardraka

V-P*K-

Special Action:* It is always useful if taken before food.
* If taken along with kdhjika (vinegar) and (rock-salt), it works as a good dipana (digestive stimulant) and pacana (carminative).
* If taken along with lavana (rock-salt), it alleviates vitiated and causes harsana (exhileration).

Description: It shares the attributes of Dry Ginger (Sund).
If it is taken with rock-salt (lavana), then it alleviates vitiated vayu.

Hot Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Katu) Pungent (Guru) Heavy,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Bhedana) Purgative,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Pacana) Carminative,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste,
(Harsana) Exhilaration,
(Rocana) Stimulate appetite
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Sula) Pain,
(Sopha) Oedema,
(Hikka) Hiccup,
(Vibandha) Constipation,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Anaha) Distension of abdomen due to obstruction to passage of urine and stools,
(Kantharoga) Diseases of throat
Long Pepper Dried
Magha/Pippalimula
Piper Longum Linn
Pippali/Kana

V-P-K-

Special Action:It has excessively hot potency (virya).
But Green Pippali has sweet taste, oily, and heavy. It's potency is cold and increases kapha.

Hot Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet,
(Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Laghu) Light,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous
(Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste,
(Recana) Laxative
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Ksaya) Phthisis/Wasting,
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Prameha) Urinary disorders (Increased frequency and turbidity of urine),
(Sula) Pain,
(Jvara) Fever,
(Gulma) Phantom Tumor,
(Hikka) Hiccup,
(Udararoga) Diseases of abdomen (Ascites),
(Arsa) Piles,
(Pliha) Splenic disease,
(Amavata) Rheumatism,
(Trsna) Thirst,
(Amadosa) Impaired digestion and metabolism,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation
Salt - Rock/HimalayanPink
Loon - Dali wala
Rock Salt
Saindhava Lavana

V-P-K-

Cold Potency --- (Madhura) Sweet (Laghu) Light,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Pacana) Carminative,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Sukshma) Subtle,
(Abhishyandi) Obstructs channels of circulation.,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste,
(Srstamala) Elimination of waste products
(Adhmana) Flatulance with gurgling sound
Salt - Black
Loon - Kala
Black salt
Sanchal Lavana

V-P+K*

Hot Potency --- (Patu/Lavana) Salty (Laghu) Light,
(Tikshna) Sharp,
(Vishada) Clear/Non-Slimy
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Sukshma) Subtle,
(Abhishyandi) Obstructs channels of circulation.,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste,
(Srstamala) Elimination of waste products
(Sula) Pain,
(Vibandha) Constipation,
(Anaha) Distension of abdomen due to obstruction to passage of urine and stools
Salt - Sea
Loon - Samudra
Sea Salt
Samudra Lavana

V-P+K+

Hot Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet,
(Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Bhedana) Purgative,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Sukshma) Subtle,
(Abhishyandi) Obstructs channels of circulation.,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste,
(Srstamala) Elimination of waste products
Water - Sun/Moon Charged
Pani - Sun/Moon
Hamsodaka
Hamsodaka

V-P-K-

Special Action:1. It is like antariksa jala (water collected directly from the sky).
2. It is free from defects.
3. It is ANabhisyandi (which does not obstruct the channels of circulation).
4. It is like an ambrosia.

Description: Water which is exposed to the sun's rays during the day time and to the moon's rays at night is called hamsodaka.

Cold Potency --- (Laghu) Light,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Balya) Strength Promoter,
(Medhya) Brain Tonic
Water- Boiled
Pani - Boiled
Boiled Water
Boiled Water

V-P-K-

Special Action:HOT WATER AFTER BOILING

1. When hot water is taken at night, it clears the adhesion of Kapha, help in the elimination of Vayu and removes indigestion immediately.
2. Water Reduced to 3/4 after boiling: Decreases Vayu.
3. Water Reduced to 1/2 after boiling: Decreases Pitta. It is useful in early winter, late winter, rainy season and spring season.
4. Water Reduced to 1/4 after boiling: Decreases Kapha. It is light, stimulates the power of digestion but constipative. It is useful in summer and autumn.
5. It is useful for Chronic Rhinitis (Pinasa), Cleans urinary tract (Cleans Basti), Flatulance with gurgling sound (Adhmana), Hiccup (Hikka), Intercostal neuralgia and pleurodynia (Parsva sula).
6. The water which is boiled and warm takes 48 minutes for digestion.

COLD WATER AFTER BOILING

1. This water is always wholesome.
2. This water is harmful if stale (kept over night) and it becomes full of impurities (or polluted). It aggravates all the three dosas. If the water is boiled during the day time and kept over night, it becomes heavy. Similarly, if water is boiled at night and taken next day, it excessively aggravates/increases all the dosas.
3. The water which is boiled and cooled gets digested in one and a half hour.

Description: The water which is boiled, free from foam and movement.

--- --- (Laghu) Light (Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Pacana) Carminative,
(Stimulates power of digestion) Stimulates power of digestion
(Pinasa) Chronic Rhinitis,
(Hikka) Hiccup,
(Adhmana) Flatulance with gurgling sound,
(Parsva sula) Intercostal neuralgia and pleurodynia,
(Cleans Basti) Cleans urinary tract
Arjuna
Arjon
Terminalia Arjuna
Kakubha

V*P-K-

Cold Potency (Katu) Pungent (Kasaya) Astringent (Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous (Hridya) Cardiac Tonic (Ksaya) Phthisis/Wasting,
(Prameha) Urinary disorders (Increased frequency and turbidity of urine),
(Hrdroga) Heart diseases,
(Raktadosa/Raktisara/Raktavikara) Vitiation of blood and its components,
(Vranas) Ulcer,
(Medoroga) Obesity,
(Visa) Poison,
(Trsna) Thirst,
(Vyanga) Pigmentation disorder,
(Asthibhagna) Bone fracture
Emblic Myrobalan
Aula/Amla
Emblica officinalis
Amalaka

V-P-K-

Special Action:Increases Plasma (Rasa)

Cold Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet,
(Amla) Sour,
(Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Laghu) Light,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous
(Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic
(Prameha) Urinary disorders (Increased frequency and turbidity of urine),
(Raktapitta) Bleeding disorder,
(Amlapitta/Ajirna) Dyspepsia/Hyperacidity,
(Daha) Burning Sensation
Myrobalan
Harar
Terminalia Chebula Retz
Abhaya/Haritaki

V-P-K-

Special Action:It cures ALL diseases.

Effects According to Different Modes of Use
* If taken after meals, it quickly cures diseases caused by the aggravation of vayu, pitta and kapha as a result of unwholesome food and drinks.
* When Haritaki is taken by chewing, it promotes the power of digestion.
* When used in paste form it cleanses the bowels.
* When used after boiling it produces constipative effect.
* When used after roasting it cures the ailments caused by the intake of unwholesome food.

Description: Use in Different Seasons
* Summer season, it should be used with equal quantity of (jaggery).
* Rainy season, it should be used by adding the sufficient quantity of saindhava (rock-salt).
* Autumn season it should be taken with equal quantity of purified sarkara (sugar).
* Beginning of Winter, it should be used with dry-ginger powder.
* Late winter, it should be taken by adding long-pepper powder.
* Spring season, it should be used with honey.

Good Qualities of Dried Haritaki:
* When put in water, it should sink
* Freshness (freshly collected)
* Dry
* Compactness
* Round in shape
* Heaviness

Good Qualities of Fresh Haritaki:
* Matured but green
* If the pulp is scraped with the help of a knife and taken, it should have taste sweet like jaggery with slightly astringent taste
* Which has thick outer skin
* Juicy
* Have small seed

It has 7 varieties:
Jivanti: Life-promoting effects; golden in color and useful in all types of diseases.
Putana: Purifying effect; it has a bigger seed and is useful in external application.
Amrta: Ambrosia like properties; it has 3 segments and it is useful for purgation.
Vijaya: Endows user with victory over diseases; it is like a tumba (elongated gourd) in shape. It cures all diseases.
Abhaya: Takes away fear of diseases; it has 5 segments and it is useful in eye-diseases.
Rohini: Exceeds in therapeutic utility; round in shape and it helps in healing ulcers.
Cetaki: Conscious-promoting property; it has 3 segments. It is useful in recipes used in the form of powder.

Hot Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet,
(Amla) Sour,
(Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Laghu) Light,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Anulomana) Downward Vayu movement,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Kushthaghna) Cure Skin Diseases.,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic,
(Medhya) Brain Tonic
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kamala) Jaundice,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Prameha) Urinary disorders (Increased frequency and turbidity of urine),
(Sula) Pain,
(Pandu) Anaemia,
(Inflammation) Sotha,
(Grahaniroga) Malabsorption syndrome/Diseases of Small Intestine,
(Gulma) Phantom Tumor,
(Hikka) Hiccup,
(Vranas) Ulcer,
(Vibandha) Constipation,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Svarabheda) Hoarseness of voice,
(Udararoga) Diseases of abdomen (Ascites),
(Arsa) Piles,
(Kandu) Itching,
(Adhmana) Flatulance with gurgling sound,
(Anaha) Distension of abdomen due to obstruction to passage of urine and stools,
(Pliha) Splenic disease,
(Aruci) Tastelessness,
(Jirnajvara) Fever (Chronic),
(Visamajvara) Fever (Intermittent),
(Udavarta) Upward movement of gases,
(Siroroga) Diseases of head,
(Tamaka Svasa) Asthma (Bronchial Asthma),
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation
Beleric Myrobalan
Bahera
Terntinalia Belerica Roxb
Bibhitaka

V*P-K-

Special Action:Its seed-pulp is intoxicating.

Hot Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Kasaya) Astringent (Laghu) Light,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous
(Bhedana) Purgative,
(Krmighna) Anthelmintic/Parasiticide,
(Kasahara) Expectorant,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic,
(Kesya) HairTonic
(Kasa) Cough,
(Vibandha) Constipation,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Svarabheda) Hoarseness of voice,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation
Withania somnifera Dunal
Asgandh
Withania somnifera Dunal
Ashwagandha, Hayagandha

V-P*K-

Hot Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Tikka) Bitter,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Laghu) Light (Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator
(Ksaya) Phthisis/Wasting,
(Inflammation) Sotha,
(Daurbalya) Weakness,
(Klaibya) Male impotence
Cardamom - Black
Elaichi - Wadi/Moti
Amomum subulatum
Sthulaila

V-P+K-

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Laghu) Light,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Angamarddaprasamana) Bodyache Relievers,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Rocana) Stimulate appetite
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Kandu) Itching,
(Trsna) Thirst,
(Hrllasa) Angina pectoris (Heart issue),
(Basti roga) Diseases due to urinary system,
(Kanthamukharoga) Diseases of Mouth and Throat
Asfoetida
Hing
Ferula foetida
Hingu/Ramaha

V-P+K-

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent (Tikshna) Sharp (Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Krmighna) Anthelmintic/Parasiticide,
(Anulomana) Downward Vayu movement,
(Pacana) Carminative,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste
(Sula) Pain,
(Hrdroga) Heart diseases,
(Agnimandya) Digestive impairment,
(Gulma) Phantom Tumor,
(Udararoga) Diseases of abdomen (Ascites),
(Sularoga) Gastric Ulcer/Duodenal ulcer/Colic,
(Adhmana) Flatulance with gurgling sound,
(Anaha) Distension of abdomen due to obstruction to passage of urine and stools,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation
Licorice Root
Mulathi/Jethimadh
Glycyrrhiza glabra
Yasti/Madhuka

V-P-K*

Cold Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet (Guru) Heavy,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous
(Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Varnya) Complexion Promoter,
(Balya) Strength Promoter,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic
(Kasa) Cough,
(Ksaya) Phthisis/Wasting,
(Raktapitta) Bleeding disorder,
(Vranas) Ulcer,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Svarabheda) Hoarseness of voice,
(Vatarakta/Adhyavata) Gout,
(Trsna) Thirst
Indian Senna
Sarnapatta/Sanaya
Cassia angustifolia
Svarnapatri

V*P-K*

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Laghu) Light,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Recana) Laxative (Vibandha) Constipation,
(Udararoga) Diseases of abdomen (Ascites)
Nardus root
Billilotan/Balchhar
Nardostachys jatamansi
Jatamamsi/Mamsi

V-P-K-

Cold Potency (Katu) Pungent (Tikka) Bitter,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Laghu) Light (Nidrakara) Hypnotic,
(Varnya) Complexion Promoter,
(Kushthaghna) Cure Skin Diseases.,
(Tridosha) Tridosha,
(Medhya) Brain Tonic
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Raktadosa/Raktisara/Raktavikara) Vitiation of blood and its components,
(Daha) Burning Sensation,
(Visarpa) Erysepales,
(Manasroga) Mental disorders,
(Anidra) Insomnia
Asparagus
Satavar
Asparagus racemosus
Satavari/Atirasa

V-P-K*

Cold Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Guru) Heavy,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous
(Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Balya) Strength Promoter,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic,
(Medhya) Brain Tonic,
(Stanya Kara) Milk Increase,
(KaphaVatAghna) Kapha & Vata Balance,
(AgniPustiKara) Nourishment to Agni
(Ksaya) Phthisis/Wasting,
(Raktapitta) Bleeding disorder,
(Amlapitta/Ajirna) Dyspepsia/Hyperacidity,
(Gulma) Phantom Tumor,
(Raktadosa/Raktisara/Raktavikara) Vitiation of blood and its components,
(Svarabheda) Hoarseness of voice,
(Vatarakta/Adhyavata) Gout,
(Arsa) Piles,
(Atisara) Diarrhoea,
(Visarpa) Erysepales,
(Parinamsula) Duodenal ulcer,
(Stanya dosa) Aversion to breast milk,
(Stanya ksaya) Decrease in breast milk,
(Vaata Jvara) Fever (due to Vaata
Gum-gugul/Indian Bdellium
Guggal
Commiphora mukul
Guggulu

V-P-K-

Special Action:Fresh Guggulu is nourishing and aphrodisiac. Fresh guggulu is golden in color and has a fragrance.
Old Guggulu is exceedingly lekhana (depleting). Old guggulu emits a foul smell and is devoid of its natural color.

Warning: The patient who is using guggulu should refrain from sour things, sharp things, things that are indigestible, sexual act, exhaustion, exposure to sun, alcoholic drinks and anger if he desires to have the prescribed therapeutic effects of this drug.
Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Laghu) Light,
(Sara) Mobile,
(Vishada) Clear/Non-Slimy
(Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Varnya) Complexion Promoter,
(Balya) Strength Promoter,
(Medohara) Fat Remove
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Prameha) Urinary disorders (Increased frequency and turbidity of urine),
(Sopha) Oedema,
(Vranas) Ulcer,
(Arsa) Piles,
(Apaci) Chronic Lymphadenopathy/Scrofula,
(Medoroga) Obesity,
(Meha) Excessive flow of urine,
(Amavata) Rheumatism,
(Gandamala) Cervical Lymphadenitis,
(Vatavyadi) Diseases due to Vata dosha/ Neurological disorders,
(Granthi) Cyst,
(Asthibhagna) Bone fracture
The Sweet Flag
Varch/Ghodavaca
Acarus calamus
Vacha/Vaca

V-P*K-

Special Action:1-2 gm. of the drug in powder form is used to induce vomiting.

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Laghu) Light,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Kanthya) Useful for Throat,
(Krmighna) Anthelmintic/Parasiticide,
(Medhya) Brain Tonic
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Sula) Pain,
(Vibandha) Constipation,
(Adhmana) Flatulance with gurgling sound,
(Apasmara) Epilepsy,
(Unmada) Mania,
(Karnasrava) Ottotthoea,
(Smrti daurbalya) Weak memory,
(Bhuta) Attacks by evil spirits
Hellebore
Karru, Kutki
Picrorhiza kurroa
Katuka

V*P-K-

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Laghu) Light (Bhedana) Purgative,
(Jvarahara) Febrifuge/Anti Pyretic/Refrigerant,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Recana) Laxative
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kamala) Jaundice,
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Jvara) Fever,
(Daha) Burning Sensation,
(Visamajvara) Fever (Intermittent)
Thyme Leaved Gratiola
Brahmibuti
Bacopa monnieri
Brahmi/Sarasvati

V-P*K-

Cold Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet,
(Tikka) Bitter,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Laghu) Light,
(Sara) Mobile
(Prajasthapana) Anebolic,
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Visaghna) Anti poison,
(Recana) Laxative,
(Medhya) Brain Tonic
(Kasa) Cough,
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Jvara) Fever,
(Pandu) Anaemia,
(Sopha) Oedema,
(Raktadosa/Raktisara/Raktavikara) Vitiation of blood and its components,
(Meha) Excessive flow of urine,
(Visa) Poison,
(Smrti vardhaka) Memory enhancer
Camphor (Natural)
Karpur
Cinnamomum camphora
Kapura

V-P-K-

Description: There are 2 kinds of Karpura: Pakva and Apakva. Pakva is from Cinnamomum camphora and the Apakva from Dryobalanops aromatica. Both are used in Ayurveda. Apakva was used more in medicine than Pakva.

Warning: Kapura is toxic in large doses; sometimes even 2 grams.
Cold Potency (Katu) Pungent (Madhura) Sweet,
(Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Laghu) Light,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Lekhaniya) Reducing Corpulency,
(Madaka) Intoxicant,
(Vedanasthapana) Anodyne/Analgesic,
(Pacana) Carminative,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic,
(Medhya) Brain Tonic
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Agnimandya) Digestive impairment,
(Kandu) Itching,
(Adhmana) Flatulance with gurgling sound,
(Visa) Poison,
(Daha) Burning Sensation,
(Klaibya) Male impotence,
(Atisara) Diarrhoea,
(Amavata) Rheumatism,
(Aruci) Tastelessness,
(Dantasula) Toothache,
(Trsna) Thirst,
(Parsva sula) Intercostal neuralgia and pleurodynia,
(Danatapuya) Pyorrhoea,
(Jirnapratisyaya) Chronic sinusitis,
(Kantharoga) Diseases of throat,
(Sanshisula) Joint pain,
(Vicarcika) Eczema,
(Visucika) Gastro-enteritis with peircing pain,
(Vrkkaroga) Renal disorder,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation
Cowhage
Tatgajuli, Kewanch
Mucuna prurita
Kapikacchu, Atmagupta

V-P-K-

Cold Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Guru) Heavy,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous
(Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Brimhaneeya) Nutritives,
(Balya) Strength Promoter
(Raktapitta) Bleeding disorder,
(Raktadosa/Raktisara/Raktavikara) Vitiation of blood and its components,
(Daurbalya) Weakness,
(Vatavyadi) Diseases due to Vata dosha/ Neurological disorders,
(Dustavrana) Non-healing ulcer
Indian Maddar
Manjistha
Rubia cordifolia
Manjistha

V-P-K*

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Madhura) Sweet,
(Tikka) Bitter,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Guru) Heavy (Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Krmighna) Anthelmintic/Parasiticide,
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Visha) Toxic,
(Varnya) Complexion Promoter,
(Kushthaghna) Cure Skin Diseases.,
(Sonitasthapana) Alterative/Blood-Purifier,
(Stambhana) Constipative
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Prameha) Urinary disorders (Increased frequency and turbidity of urine),
(Sopha) Oedema,
(Raktadosa/Raktisara/Raktavikara) Vitiation of blood and its components,
(Nertaroga/Drstiroga/Aksiroga) Eye disease,
(Vranas) Ulcer,
(Yonidosa) Disorder of female genital tract,
(Arsa) Piles,
(Meha) Excessive flow of urine,
(Visarpa) Erysepales,
(Vyanga) Pigmentation disorder,
(Sarpadansha) Snake bites,
(Slesmaja sotha) Inflammation due to kapha dosa
Cork Swallow-wort
Jivanti
Leptadenia reticulata
Jivanti

V-P-K-

Cold Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Laghu) Light,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous
(Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Stanya Janana) Galactagogue,
(Brimhaneeya) Nutritives,
(Balya) Strength Promoter,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic,
(Sangrahi/Grahi) Digestive Stimulant, Carminative, and Constipative,
(Visaghna) Anti poison
(Kasa) Cough,
(Ksaya) Phthisis/Wasting,
(Raktapitta) Bleeding disorder,
(Jvara) Fever,
(Nertaroga/Drstiroga/Aksiroga) Eye disease,
(Vranas) Ulcer,
(Daha) Burning Sensation,
(Atisara) Diarrhoea,
(Trsna) Thirst,
(Mukharoga) Diseases of mouth,
(Sosa) Cachexia
Symplocos bark
Lodhar
Symplocos racemosa
Lodhara

V*P-K-

Cold Potency (Katu) Pungent (Kasaya) Astringent (Laghu) Light (Bhedana) Purgative,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic,
(Sangrahi/Grahi) Digestive Stimulant, Carminative, and Constipative,
(Recana) Laxative
(Raktapitta) Bleeding disorder,
(Jvara) Fever,
(Sopha) Oedema,
(Raktadosa/Raktisara/Raktavikara) Vitiation of blood and its components,
(Nertaroga/Drstiroga/Aksiroga) Eye disease,
(Atisara) Diarrhoea
Castor oil plant
Erand
Ricinus communis
Eranda

V*P+K*

Hot Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet,
(Katu) Pungent,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous,
(Sukshma) Subtle,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Bhedana) Purgative,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Anulomana) Downward Vayu movement,
(Medohara) Fat Remove,
(Sroto Shodhana) Channel cleanser,
(Vayasthapana) Anti aging
(Yakrdroga) Disease of liver,
(Vibandha) Constipation,
(Amavata) Rheumatism,
(Katigraha) Stiffness of lumbar region,
(Sitanga) Coldness in the body
Holy Basil
Tulsi
Ocimum sanctum
Tulasi

V-P+K-

Special Action:* Wild Tulsi is best among Ram, Krishna, and Wild.
* Whole plant is Pittavardhini (Pitta increase).
* Leaves are Pittahara (Decrease)
* Seeds are Kaphahara, Vatahara, Pittahara (Decrease).

Warning: It causes burning sensation (daha).
Hot Potency --- (Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Laghu) Light,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Krmighna) Anthelmintic/Parasiticide,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Hikka) Hiccup,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Arsa) Piles,
(Visa) Poison,
(Mutrakrcchra) Dysuria,
(Aruci) Tastelessness,
(Parsva sula) Intercostal neuralgia and pleurodynia,
(Pratisyaya) Sinusitis,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation,
(Parsva Ruk) Pain in side of chest
Caltrops
Bhakhra
Tribulus terrestris
Gokshura

V-P*K*

Hot Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Guru) Heavy,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Prameha) Urinary disorders (Increased frequency and turbidity of urine),
(Hrdroga) Heart diseases,
(Raktadosa/Raktisara/Raktavikara) Vitiation of blood and its components,
(Mutrakrcchra) Dysuria,
(Cleans Basti) Cleans urinary tract
The lemon of India
Nimbu
Citrus limon
Nimbu,

V-P+K-

Hot Potency (Amla) Sour (Amla) Sour (Laghu) Light (Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Pacana) Carminative
(Sula) Pain,
(Agnimandya) Digestive impairment,
(Vibandha) Constipation,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Udararoga) Diseases of abdomen (Ascites),
(Aruci) Tastelessness,
(Trsna) Thirst,
(Visucika) Gastro-enteritis with peircing pain,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation
Celery
Valjawain, Ajmod
Apium graveolens
Ajmoda, Kharahva

V-P*K-

Special Action:Ther Usage: 1164 pdf of main.
Mastiskadaurbalya (Neurosthenia),
Prsthasula (Lumbago),
Fever due to Kapha dosa.

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Laghu) Light,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant (Sula) Pain,
(Sopha) Oedema,
(Yakrdroga) Disease of liver,
(Hikka) Hiccup,
(Vatarakta/Adhyavata) Gout,
(Udararoga) Diseases of abdomen (Ascites),
(Pliha) Splenic disease,
(Mutraghat) Urinary obstruction,
(Siroroga) Diseases of head,
(Asmari) Calculus,
(Grdhrasi) Sciatica,
(Parsva sula) Intercostal neuralgia and pleurodynia,
(Yakrtplihavrddhi) Enlargement of liver and spleen,
(Basti roga) Diseases due to urinary system,
(Pliha Vrddhi) Enlargement of spleen,
(Yakrt Vrddhi) Enlargement of liver,
(Jalodara) Ascites
Sesame, Gingelly-oil Seeds
Til
Sesamum indicum
Tila

V-P+K+

Special Action:Among the different types of tila, the black variety is the best, the white variety is middling and other varieties are inferior in quality.

Description: - Menorrhagia (Pradara)
- Yoni sula
- Dantaharsa (Morbid sensitiveness of the teeth)


Hot Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet,
(Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Guru) Heavy,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous,
(Sukshma) Subtle
(Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Mutra Sangrahaniya) Antidiuretic,
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Varnya) Complexion Promoter,
(Snehopaga) Udvartana/Unction Helpers,
(Balya) Strength Promoter,
(Kesya) HairTonic,
(Sangrahi/Grahi) Digestive Stimulant, Carminative, and Constipative,
(Visaghna) Anti poison,
(Pittala) Bilious,
(Medhya) Brain Tonic
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Ksaya) Phthisis/Wasting,
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Sirah sula) Headache,
(Pravahika) Dysentery,
(Gulma) Phantom Tumor,
(Pinasa) Chronic Rhinitis,
(Hikka) Hiccup,
(Raktadosa/Raktisara/Raktavikara) Vitiation of blood and its components,
(Nertaroga/Drstiroga/Aksiroga) Eye disease,
(Vranas) Ulcer,
(Vatarakta/Adhyavata) Gout,
(Udararoga) Diseases of abdomen (Ascites),
(Anaha) Distension of abdomen due to obstruction to passage of urine and stools,
(Pliha) Splenic disease,
(Atisara) Diarrhoea,
(Asmari) Calculus,
(Granthi) Cyst,
(Trsna) Thirst,
(Parsva sula) Intercostal neuralgia and pleurodynia,
(Mukharoga) Diseases of mouth,
(Unmada) Mania,
(Pratisyaya) Sinusitis,
(Visarpa) Erysepales,
(Nadi vrana) Sinus,
(Galaganda) Goiter,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation
Tamarind
Imli
Tamarindus indica
Amlika, Cinca

V-P*K*

Special Action:Unripe Imli is heavy. It decreases Vaata but vitiates/disturbs pitta, kapha and blood.
Ripe Imli is laxative and appetizer. It is a digestive stimulant and it cleanses the urinary bladder.
Dried Imli is hrdya (cardiac tonic). It cures srama (exhaustion), bhrtinti (giddiness), trstla (morbid thirst) and klama (mental fatigue). It is light.


Hot Potency (Amla) Sour (Madhura) Sweet,
(Amla) Sour,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Guru) Heavy,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous,
(Sara) Mobile
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic
(Agnimandya) Digestive impairment,
(Udararoga) Diseases of abdomen (Ascites),
(Nadi vrana) Sinus,
(Karna sula) Otalgia,
(Cleans Basti) Cleans urinary tract
Garlic
Lasan
Allium sativum
Lasuna, Rasona

V-P+K-

Warning: * It suppresses power of digestion.
* Anyone using garlic should avoid exercise, exposure to sun, anger, water in excess, milk and jiggery.
Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Madhura) Sweet,
(Katu) Pungent
(Guru) Heavy,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous,
(Sara) Mobile,
(Tikshna) Sharp,
(Pichchila) Cloudy/Slimy
(Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Varnya) Complexion Promoter,
(Pacana) Carminative,
(Balya) Strength Promoter,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic,
(Jantunasana) Anti biotic,
(Recana) Laxative,
(Medhya) Brain Tonic
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Ksaya) Phthisis/Wasting,
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Sula) Pain,
(Hrdroga) Heart diseases,
(Jvara) Fever,
(Sopha) Oedema,
(Gulma) Phantom Tumor,
(Pinasa) Chronic Rhinitis,
(Hikka) Hiccup,
(Raktadosa/Raktisara/Raktavikara) Vitiation of blood and its components,
(Vibandha) Constipation,
(Arsa) Piles,
(Medoroga) Obesity,
(Aruci) Tastelessness,
(Visamajvara) Fever (Intermittent),
(Vatavyadi) Diseases due to Vata dosha/ Neurological disorders,
(Apasmara) Epilepsy,
(Unmada) Mania,
(Kantharoga) Diseases of throat,
(Visucika) Gastro-enteritis with peircing pain,
(Karna sula) Otalgia,
(Trika sula) Pain in sacral region,
(Pliha Vrddhi) Enlargement of spleen,
(Asthibhagna) Bone fracture,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation
Onion
Piyaj
Allium cepa
Palandu, Sukanda

V-P*K-

Special Action:* It has properties similar to Garlic but it (onion) does not increase pitta in excess.
* It alleviates vaata (which is not combined with other aggravated doshas).
* It is NOT very hot potency.

Hot Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet,
(Katu) Pungent
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous (Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Balya) Strength Promoter,
(Rocana) Stimulate appetite
(Ksaya) Phthisis/Wasting,
(Jvara) Fever,
(Sopha) Oedema,
(Vidradhi) Abscess
Spearmint
Pahari pudina
Mentha viridis
Pudinah, Rocani

V-P-K-

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent (Laghu) Light,
(Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Mutra Virechaniya) Diuretic,
(Balya) Strength Promoter,
(Rocana) Stimulate appetite
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Sula) Pain,
(Jvara) Fever,
(Agnimandya) Digestive impairment,
(Amlapitta/Ajirna) Dyspepsia/Hyperacidity,
(Grahaniroga) Malabsorption syndrome/Diseases of Small Intestine,
(Hikka) Hiccup,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Adhmana) Flatulance with gurgling sound,
(Mutrakrcchra) Dysuria,
(Atisara) Diarrhoea,
(Aruci) Tastelessness,
(Jirnajvara) Fever (Chronic),
(Visucika) Gastro-enteritis with peircing pain,
(Kasthaartava) Dysmenorrhoea,
(Prasutijvara) Fever (Puerperal),
(Mada) Intoxication,
(Hanustambha) Lockjaw,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation
Psyllium seed
Isabgol
Plantago Ovota
Ashwagolam

V-P-K*

Special Action:* Psyllium can be taken in buttermilk (lassi) in case of diarrhea.
* Psyllium can be taken in warm milk in case of constipation.

Description: The seeds swell with mucilage in the colon, which absorbs bacteria and toxins, soothes inflamed mucous membranes and moistens dryness. Psyllium seeds, however, may cause griping. They may be replaced with psyllium husks, which are a superior medicinal, or balanced by an aromatic like ginger or fennel.

Warning: The heavy property of psyllium tends to reduce Agni, and so for long
term usage balancing it out with a digestive stimulant would be
recommended anyway.
Cold Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet (Guru) Heavy,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous,
(Pichchila) Cloudy/Slimy
(Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Dahaprasamana) Curatives of Burning syndrome,
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Balya) Strength Promoter,
(Recana) Laxative
(Jvara) Fever,
(Pravahika) Dysentery,
(Vibandha) Constipation,
(Atisara) Diarrhoea,
(Amatisara) Diarrhoea due to indigestion
Indian Aloe
Mussabar
Aloe barbadensis
Kumari, Kanyasara

V*P-K-

Cold Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent (Sheeta) Cold (Bhedana) Purgative (Raktapitta) Bleeding disorder,
(Jvara) Fever,
(Yakrdroga) Disease of liver,
(Vibandha) Constipation,
(Udararoga) Diseases of abdomen (Ascites),
(Tvagroga) Skin disease,
(Pliha) Splenic disease,
(Granthi) Cyst,
(Visphota) Blister,
(Kasthaartava) Dysmenorrhoea,
(Yakrtplihavrddhi) Enlargement of liver and spleen,
(Pliha Vrddhi) Enlargement of spleen,
(Yakrt Vrddhi) Enlargement of liver
Rose
Gulab
Rosa centifolia
Satapatrika, Devataruni

V-P-K-

Special Action:* It is pleasing to Mind.
* It removes foul smell of body.
* It also removes inauspiciousness.
* The water (after distillation) of rose alleviates/decreases exhaustion.

Cold Potency (Katu) Pungent (Tikka) Bitter,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Laghu) Light (Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Varnya) Complexion Promoter,
(Pacana) Carminative,
(Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Stambhana) Constipative,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic,
(Sukrala/Sukra Utpattikara) Semen Generator
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Raktapitta) Bleeding disorder,
(Raktadosa/Raktisara/Raktavikara) Vitiation of blood and its components,
(Visa) Poison,
(Daha) Burning Sensation
Clarified butter
Ghee
Clarified butter
Ghrta

V-P-K+

Special Action:* Ghee prepared from Cow's milk is the best.
* Ghee prepared from Buffalo's milk cures Raktapitta (Bleeding disorder).
* Ghee prepared directly from milk is refreshing. It cures eye diseases and daha (burning sensation), Raktapitta (Bleeding disorder), Fainting.

* Preserved ghee (10 or more years) alleviates/decreases all 3 doshas (Vaata, Pitta, and Kapha). It is purgative, cures ulcers, cataract,chronic cold, asthma, fainting, obstinate skin diseases Including leprosy, poisoning, unmada (insanity), burning syndrome, epilepsy, colic pain in female genital tract, ear, eye and head, oedema, and fever. It is purgative. Preserved Ghee of 100 years cures afflictions by evil spirits.

Warning: Ghee is not very useful in tuberculosis, young age, old age, in diseases caused by kapha, in the Ama stage of diseases, cholera, constipation, alcoholism, fever and in the suppression of the power of digestion.
Cold Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet (Guru) Heavy,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous,
(Mrudu) Soft
(Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Vishaghna) AntiToxic,
(Balya) Strength Promoter,
(Abhishyandi) Obstructs channels of circulation.,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic,
(Rucya) Stimulate taste,
(AgniDipana) Digestive stimulant Agni,
(Ojas/Tejas) VitalFluid/Semen
(Ksaya) Phthisis/Wasting,
(Sula) Pain,
(Amlapitta/Ajirna) Dyspepsia/Hyperacidity,
(Vranas) Ulcer,
(Anaha) Distension of abdomen due to obstruction to passage of urine and stools,
(Visa) Poison,
(Udavarta) Upward movement of gases,
(Unmada) Mania,
(Visarpa) Erysepales
Oil - Sesamum/Gingelly
Taila - Tila
Sesamum indicum oil
Tila taila

V-P*K*

Special Action:* Useful for people with Vaata prakriti.
* It is used in the form of sprinkling, massage, bath, enema, drinking through mouth, inhalation, ear drop, and pouring over eyes. It is used in food and drinks for the alleviation of vayu.
* It is useful in excised, incised, dislocated, macerated, lacerated, ulcerated, pressed, fractured, broken, perforated, burnt, separated and scraped wounds and injury and eating away by wild animals.

Hot Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet (Guru) Heavy,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous,
(Sara) Mobile,
(Sukshma) Subtle
(Sandhaneeya) Wound Healer,
(Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Vyavayi) Vyavayi,
(Stanya Janana) Galactagogue,
(Balya) Strength Promoter,
(Vikasi) Vikasi,
(Chakshusya) EyeTonic,
(Kesya) HairTonic,
(Recana) Laxative,
(Medhya) Brain Tonic
(Sula) Pain,
(Sirah sula) Headache,
(Vranas) Ulcer,
(Yonidosa) Disorder of female genital tract,
(Kandu) Itching,
(Meha) Excessive flow of urine,
(Daurbalya) Weakness,
(Dantasula) Toothache,
(Agnidagdha) Burn injury,
(Ardita) Facial palsy,
(Karna sula) Otalgia,
(Vranashodhaka and Ropaka) Wound healing property,
(Asthibhagna) Bone fracture,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation,
(Paksaghata) Paralysis,
(Puyameha) Gonorrhoea,
(Ear disease) Ear diseases
Oil - Coconut
Taila - Nariyal
Cocos nucifera
Narikela taila

V-P-K+

Special Action:* Useful for people with Pitta prakriti.

Cold Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet (Guru) Heavy,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous
(Kesya) HairTonic (Pama) Eczema
Oil - Mustard
Taila - Sarson
Brassica campestris
Sarsapa taila

V-P*K-

Special Action:* It vitiates pitta and blood.
* Useful for people with Kapha prakriti.

Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Katu) Pungent,
(Tikka) Bitter
(Laghu) Light,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous,
(Tikshna) Sharp
(Angamarddaprasamana) Bodyache Relievers,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Krmighna) Anthelmintic/Parasiticide,
(Lekhaniya) Reducing Corpulency,
(Mutra Virechaniya) Diuretic,
(Vedanasthapana) Anodyne/Analgesic
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Nertaroga/Drstiroga/Aksiroga) Eye disease,
(Vranas) Ulcer,
(Arsa) Piles,
(Kandu) Itching,
(Meha) Excessive flow of urine,
(Pliha) Splenic disease,
(Siroroga) Diseases of head,
(Kotha) Urticaria,
(Danatapuya) Pyorrhoea,
(Sveta Pradara) Leucorrhoea,
(Slipada) Filariasis,
(Pliha Vrddhi) Enlargement of spleen,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation
Oil - Castor
Taila - Erand
Ricinus communis
Eranda taila

V-P*K-

Hot Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Madhura) Sweet (Sukshma) Subtle (Vrishya/Vajikarana) Aphrodisiac,
(Bhedana) Purgative,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Sukra Sodhana) Spermato Purificators,
(Ama pacana) Detoxicant
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Sula) Pain,
(Sopha) Oedema,
(Gulma) Phantom Tumor,
(Hikka) Hiccup,
(Vranas) Ulcer,
(Vatarakta/Adhyavata) Gout,
(Udararoga) Diseases of abdomen (Ascites),
(Anaha) Distension of abdomen due to obstruction to passage of urine and stools,
(Pliha) Splenic disease,
(Vatasonita) Gout,
(Granthi) Cyst,
(Balya) Increase stamina and endurance,
(Vidradhi) Abscess,
(Asthila) Hard tumor in abdomen,
(Katigraha) Stiffness of lumbar region,
(Sitanga) Coldness in the body
Curd
Dahi
Curd
Dadhi

V*P*K+

Special Action:
Based upon the Stage:
* Immature (Manda) [V+P+K+]; causes burning sensation. It helps in elimination of stool and urine.
* Sweet variety [V-P-K+]; when taken in early morning. It is aphrodisiac and reduces fat. It produces more of blood and pitta. It slightly obstructs the channels of circulation.
* Both sweet and sour variety has all general properties.
* Sour variety [V*P+K+]; increases blood. It stimulates digestion.
* Excessively sour produces bleeding disorders.

Based upon Source:
* Curd prepared from Boiled milk [V-P-K*]; promotes all the dhatus, power of digestion, strength, appetite.It is exceedingly useful.
* Curd prepared from Cow's milk [V-P*K*]; is excellent. It is appetizer, digestive stimulant, nourishing.
* Curd prepared from Buffalo's milk [V-P-K+]; It vitiates blood (impair the quality) of blood. It obstructs the channels of circulation, but aphrodisiac.

Based upon Combination:
* Curd added with sugar [V*P-K*]; is very useful. It cures morbid thirst, burning syndrome, vitiation of blood.
* Curd added with jaggery [V-P*K*]; is heavy, aphrodisiac, nourishing, refreshing.

Based upon Season:
* Beneficial in first part of winter, later part of winter, and in rainy season.
* Not useful in autumn, summer and spring season.

Based upon Part of curd:
* Sara (Upper layer of curd which is dense) is [V-P+K+]; heavy, laxative, aphrodisiac, cleans urinary bladder. But it suppresses the power of digestion.
* Masru (watery portion) is [V-P*K-]; light, promotes strength, appetite, refreshing, instant laxative and giver of happiness. It cleanses channels of circulation. But it is NOT aphrodisiac.

Description: There are 5 states of curd:
1. First state of curd is: Manda (Immature) in which there is no manifested taste.
2. Second state of curd is: Svadu (Sweet) in which curd is sweet in taste.
3. Third state of curd is: Svadvamla: both sweet and sour in taste.
4. Fourth state of curd is: Amla (Sour) in which curd is sour taste.
5. Fifth state of curd is: Atyamla (excessively sour).

Warning: * Dadhi should not be taken at night, nor should it be
taken without ghee, sugar, honey.
Hot Potency (Katu) Pungent (Madhura) Sweet,
(Amla) Sour
(Guru) Heavy,
(Snigdha) Oily/Unctuous
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Varnya) Complexion Promoter,
(Balya) Strength Promoter,
(Stambhana) Constipative,
(Sukrala/Sukra Utpattikara) Semen Generator
(Pinasa) Chronic Rhinitis,
(Mutrakrcchra) Dysuria,
(Atisara) Diarrhoea,
(Aruci) Tastelessness,
(Visamajvara) Fever (Intermittent),
(Balya) Increase stamina and endurance,
(Karsya) Emaciation
Vasaka
Vansa, Bhekar
Adhatoda vasica
Vasaka, Atarusaka

V+P-K-

Cold Potency (Katu) Pungent (Tikka) Bitter,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Laghu) Light (Hridya) Cardiac Tonic,
(Recana) Laxative
(Svasa) Asthma,
(Kamala) Jaundice,
(Kasa) Cough,
(Ksaya) Phthisis/Wasting,
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Prameha) Urinary disorders (Increased frequency and turbidity of urine),
(Raktapitta) Bleeding disorder,
(Jvara) Fever,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Meha) Excessive flow of urine
Guduchi
Gilo
Tinospora cordifolia
Guduchi, Amrta

V-P-K-

Special Action:* If taken along with Cow Ghee, it alleviates Vayu.
* If taken along with jaggery it alleviates Pitta.
* If taken along with honey it alleviates Kapha.
* If taken along with castor oil it cures acute type of gout.
* If taken along with sunthi, it cures amavata (rheumatism).

Hot Potency (Madhura) Sweet (Tikka) Bitter,
(Kasaya) Astringent
(Laghu) Light (Dahaprasamana) Curatives of Burning syndrome,
(Dipana) Digestive Stimulant,
(Rasayana) Rejuvenator,
(Balya) Strength Promoter,
(Sangrahi/Grahi) Digestive Stimulant, Carminative, and Constipative,
(Tridosha) Tridosha,
(Ama pacana) Detoxicant
(Kamala) Jaundice,
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Jvara) Fever,
(Pandu) Anaemia,
(Chardi/Vami) Vomit,
(Vatarakta/Adhyavata) Gout,
(Trsna) Thirst,
(Ama) Metabolic waste/toxinx,
(Amavisha) Reactive toxins generated inside the body from Ama,
(Garavisha) Environment toxins
Margosa Tree
Nim/Neem
Azadirachta Indica
Arista/Picumarda

V*P-K-

Cold Potency (Katu) Pungent (Tikka) Bitter (Ruksha) Dry/Ununctuous (Kandughna) Anti Psoric,
(Sangrahi/Grahi) Digestive Stimulant, Carminative, and Constipative
(Kustha) Diseases of Skin,
(Prameha) Urinary disorders (Increased frequency and turbidity of urine),
(Jvara) Fever,
(Vranas) Ulcer,
(Krmiroga) Parasitic Infestation

Homeopathic Medicines

Go to top
Homeopathic Meridian
Carbo Vegetabilis Lung Meridian
Aluminium Metallicum Large Intestine Meridian
Aurum Metallicum Heart Meridian
Plumbum Metallicum Small Intestine Meridian
Staphisagria Pericardium Meridian
Silica Triple Warmer Meridian
Phosphorus Kidney Meridian
Kalium Carbonicum Bladder Meridian
Stannum Metallicum Liver Meridian
Colocynth Gallbladder Meridian
Thuja Spleen Meridian
Nux vomica Stomach Meridian
Homeopathic Planet
Plumbum Metallicum Saturn
Stannum Metallicum Jupiter
Ferrum Metallicum Mars
Aurum Metallicum Sun
Mercurius Vivus Mercury
Cuprum Metallicum Venus
Argentum Metallicum Moon
Homeopathic Zodiac For Zodiac's Planet
Natrum Phosphoricum Libra Venus
Kali Muriaticum Gemini Mercury
Natrum Muriaticum Aquarius Saturn
Kali Phosphorica Aries Mars
Magnesia Phosphorica Leo Sun
Silicea Sagittarius Jupiter
Calcarea Fluorica Cancer Moon
Calcarea Sulphuricum Scorpio Mars
Ferrum Phosphoricum Pisces Jupiter
Calcarea Phosphorica Capricorn Saturn
Natrum Sulphuricum Taurus Venus
Kali Sulphuricum Virgo Mercury


Name Uses Description MateriaMedicaInformation
Chelidonium Gallbladder stones
Ferrum Phos Fevers, Anemia
Chamomilla Vulgaris Vomits, Diarrhea, Fever
Hepar Sulphuris Calcareum Cold
Kali Bichromicum Cold
Calcarea Carbonica Tonic
Flu Health Kit Flu Kit contains 3 bottles containing: Winter Tonic, Upper Respiratory Balance, Thymuline. Winter To
Cinchona Officinalis (China) Tonic for weekness
Cina For worms
Calcarea Fluorica
Calcaria Fluorica (Fluoride of Lime). The quality of this chemical is to draw distant places together. It draws and establishes communication in terms of the subjective mind. The human personalities unite within it. It is the feminine or receptive aspect of the Life Power.
MANIFESTATIONS INDICATING CELL SALT USE:
  • Depression and groundless fear of financial ruin
  • Tumors in newborns
  • Cataracts, conjunctivitis, spots before eyes
  • Ringing or roaring in middle ear
  • Nasal catarrh, stuffy head colds, atrophic rhinitis
  • Unnatural looseness of teeth without pain
  • Hiccough
  • Flatulence
  • Itching or fissure of anus
  • Pain in sacrum and internal piles
  • Bleeding hemorrhoids
  • Male: Indurations of the testicles
  • Spasmodic cough, with tickling, specially lying down
  • Varicose or enlarged veins
  • Pain and burning in lower back - better with movement
  • Chronic synovitis of knee joint
  • Scar tissue
  • Chapped hands with cracks on palms
  • Hardened, glands in the female breast

Is Cell Salt
Organs and Tissues Affected:
Connective tissue, Bones, Vein walls, Tendons, Sinews, Glands, Eastic fibers, Periosteum (bone covering), Tooth enamel, Throat, Larynx, Thyroid, Binding of tissues, Elasticity of tissues

Facial Signs of Deficiency:
Location: Around the eye sockets, translucent tips of teeth, cracked lips.
Skin Appearance: Reflective, especially in acute conditions.
Color: Blue lips, brownish-black shading, white flakes, transparent tips of teeth.
Texture: Raised wrinkles, fan-shaped wrinkles, furrows, white scales, cracked lips, translucent tips of teeth.

Physical Symptoms of Deficiency:
Cornea problems, Brittle/Splitting/Soft-nails, Low body temperature, Chapping, Cracked skin, Cavities, Varicose veins, Osteoporosis, Deficient teeth enamel, Sweaty feet

Tongue Symptoms of Deficiency:
Tongue is cracked, inflammation, and swelling, hardness, can be painful or not

Emotional Symptoms of Deficiency:
Indecisiveness, weakness, low self-esteem, stress regarding financial matters

Discharges Indicative of Deficiency:
Grass-green discharges or thick yellow-greenish discharges, that smell offensive

Foods Rich in Salt:
Whole grain foods, dairy foods, raw vegetables, soybeans, sesame seeds, spinach, broccoli, mushrooms
Potential Diseases:
Bone problems, Cataracts, Tooth enamel problems, Hardening glands, Gas, Tumors, Weak connective tissue, Scoliosis, Scar tissue, Splinters, Smelly feet
Calcarea Phosphorica
Calcarea Phosphorica (Phosphate of Lime). Without the proper amount of calcarea phos, no bone could be constructed. It is a worker in albumen and carries it to the bone and uses it as cement. Bright's disease is simply an overflow of albumen by the way of the kidneys due to a deficiency of Phosphate of Lime. The deficiency of this chemical in the gastric juices results in undigested foods from which acids form and this deprives the joints of the arms and legs of the cartilage necessary to oil; yet the term used to denote this deficiency is known to us as rheumatism.
MANIFESTATIONS INDICATING CELL SALT USE:
  • Headache during change of weather
  • Headache in children during puberty
  • Swollen tonsils, rapidly decaying teeth, teeth develop slowly
  • Craving for ham, bacon and salted meats; great thirst with hunger
  • Soreness and burning around navel
  • Female, menses too early, excessive and bright; violent backache
  • Involuntary sighing, pain in lower left lung
  • Pain from sitting in a draft; dullness in head
  • Stiffness with pain, cold, numb with weather change
  • Difficulties which worsen during cold, damp weather and get better in warm, sunny weather

Is Cell Salt
Organs and Tissues Affected:
Nutrition, Bones, Muscles, Tendons, Teeth, Spine, Blood, Periosteum (bone covering), Cartilage, Glands, Protein binder, Cartilage, Chest

Facial Signs of Deficiency:
Location: Ears, nose, skin under eyebrows, cheekbone, small lips, translucent tips of teeth.
Skin Appearance: Ears, nose, skin under eyebrows, cheekbone, small lips, translucent tips of teeth.
Color: White waxy appearance, transparent tips of teeth.
Texture: Waxy appearance, white flakes in teeth or fingernails, translucent tips of teeth, stretched skin on cheekbones, small lips


Physical Symptoms of Deficiency:
Muscles are sensitive to cold, White marks on fingernails and teeth, Tips of teeth are translucent, Osteoporosis, Nosebleeds, Bone growth, Late teeth, Heart palpitations, Nose polyps, Headaches (in children), Growing pains

Tongue Symptoms of Deficiency:
Bitter taste in mouth with blister or pimples on the tip of the tongue, the tongue is swollen, stiff and numb

Emotional Symptoms of Deficiency:
Desire to travel, loss of motivation, mental weakness, difficulty handling bad news

Discharges Indicative of Deficiency:
Thick clear discharges

Foods Rich in Salt:
Almonds, cucumbers, oats, soybeans, white beans, dandelions, cherries, spinach, dairy foods, dates
Potential Diseases:
Bone problems, Weak ankles, Teething problems, Osteoporosis, Spinabifida, Stiff neck, Rickets
Calcarea Sulphuricum
Calcarea Sulphurica (Sulphate of Lime--Plaster of Paris) These elements - lime and sulphur, are in no way beneficial to the human body in their crude forms. It is only when nature steps up their vibration through plant life, that they can be utilized in body chemistry. The aggressive urges here are entirely capable of resurrecting every dead cell in the body and revitalizing all conditions. It is the crucible for relaxing, fluxing and transmuting the great vibratory forces that we need.
MANIFESTATIONS INDICATING CELL SALT USE:
  • Deafness with discharge from middle ear
  • Edges of nostrils sore, secretions tinged with blood
  • Pimples on face; Herpes
  • Pain in abdomen near liver on right side
  • Female, menses late and long lasting; with headache
  • Burning, itching soles of the feet
  • Cough with burning in soles of feet
  • Slow-healing wounds with discharging pus

Is Cell Salt
Organs and Tissues Affected:
Liver, Gallbladder, Heart muscle, Connective tissue, Glands, Mucus membranes, Bones, Skin

Facial Signs of Deficiency:
Location: Jaw line
Skin Appearance: Glassy or polished
Color: Alabaster-white appearance, paleness
Texture:


Physical Symptoms of Deficiency:
Chronic pus, Open infections, Fibroids, Yellow mucus discharges, Boils, Contact dermatitis, Burning, Itching, Inflammation

Tongue Symptoms of Deficiency:
Inflammation, infected sores. Flabby with yellow coating at back

Emotional Symptoms of Deficiency:
Fatigue, laziness, inactivity, worries about imaginary problems

Discharges Indicative of Deficiency:
Yellow thick and lumpy discharges

Foods Rich in Salt:
Oats, almonds, cucumbers, lentils, peanuts, soybeans, cauliflower
Potential Diseases:
Abcesses, Boils, Inflammation, Acne, Eczema, Yellow discharges, Tonsillitis, Tumors, Ulcers
Ferrum Phosphoricum
Ferrum phosphoricum (Phosphate of Iron). This chemical has an affinity for oxygen which is carried into the circulation and diffused throughout the organism by the chemical force of this phosphate of iron. Just as the feet are the foundation of the body, so iron is the foundation of the blood. Through this foundation of the blood is ignited cells of both red and white. Iron is known as a magnetic mineral and magnetism is made possible by the body's knowledge. In the blood stream we find both red and white corpuscles and due to the chemical value of iron, they carry on the process of wheels within wheels or the interlocking cycles and rotations of metabolic activity. Lack of iron in the blood results in an over lymphatic condition. When the red corpuscles are short the result is a severe acid condition and generally results in anemia. This cell salt builds both the magnetism and the body's ability to utilize both nature and art. When iron is tempered to a high potency, it provides that stamina needed.
MANIFESTATIONS INDICATING CELL SALT USE:
  • Eyes feel as if sand under the lids
  • Blood rushes to head, roaring noises
  • Predisposition to colds
  • Facial neuralgia, worse when stooping
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Female, menses every three weeks, with pain on top of head; vagina hot and dry
  • Lung congestion with inflammation; short, painful, croupy cough
  • Pulse rapid with palpitation (see doctor)
  • Rheumatic pain in neck, shoulder, and back

Is Cell Salt
Organs and Tissues Affected:
Blood, Arterial system, Hemoglobin, Nerves, Circulation, Colon, Lungs, Ears (eustachian tubes), Heart, Mucus membranes, Bones

Facial Signs of Deficiency:
Location: Chronic: whole-face paleness, bluish-black circles under eyes; acute: red cheek, forehead, ears.
Skin Appearance:
Color: Bluish-black shade, red ears.
Texture: Shading in corners of the eyes, furrows, hung-over or sleepless appearance, red ears, inflamed skin.


Physical Symptoms of Deficiency:
First stages of fever (99–101 deg), Fatigue, Weak immune system, Red face, Pulsing and throbbing headaches, Inflammations, Anemia, Hemorrhages, Sore throat, Nosebleeds, Colds, Flus

Tongue Symptoms of Deficiency:
Red to dark red with inflammation and swelling with no coating

Emotional Symptoms of Deficiency:
At first, stimulation and overheating, followed by dullness and listlessness

Discharges Indicative of Deficiency:
Hemorrhages of blood from inflammatory conditions anywhere in the body

Foods Rich in Salt:
Spinach, hazelnuts, whole rice, soy, sesame seeds, tomatoes, oats, red and blue berries
Potential Diseases:
Anemia, Nosebleeds, Sore throats, Hemorrhages, Low-to-moderate fevers, Blood problems
Kali Muriaticum
Kali Mur (Chloride of Potassium). It is believed that this chemical joins the positive and negative elements in the body. The perfect balance between the brain and nerves. The top of the nerves connected with the Pineal Gland and is the male electric current of the spinal system. The top of the nerve connects with the Pituitary gland and is the female electric current of the spinal system. These are the male and female electric current joined together at the cerebellum. This chemical signifies the personality and individuality on the mental planes of the individual.
MANIFESTATIONS INDICATING CELL SALT USE:
  • Headache with vomiting
  • Chronic middle ear catarrh
  • Snapping noises in the ear
  • Nosebleeds
  • Tonsils inflamed and enlarged
  • Bulimia
  • Fatty or rich food causes indigestion
  • Flatulence, itching at anus
  • Diarrhea after fatty food

Is Cell Salt
Organs and Tissues Affected:
Fibrin (fibrous protein), Glands, Bronchials, Throat, Eustachian tubes, Ears, Muscles, Joints, Mucus membranes, Shoulders

Facial Signs of Deficiency:
Location: Cheeks, eyelids
Skin Appearance:
Color: Milky red, or blue, or purple shading; acne rosacea; red spider veins.
Texture: Milky appearance, acne rosacea, chicken skin.


Physical Symptoms of Deficiency:
Second stages of fever (101–103 deg), Coughing, Eustachian tube blockage, White mucus discharges, Allergies, Varicose veins, Glandular problems, Chicken skin on the arms

Tongue Symptoms of Deficiency:
Tongue can be coated grayish-white, dry or slimy

Emotional Symptoms of Deficiency:
Family issues, irritability, apathy, homesickness, tendency to hypochondria

Discharges Indicative of Deficiency:
Thick white discharges

Foods Rich in Salt:
Cucumber, peanuts, hazelnuts, lentils, spinach, pork, soybeans, sesame seeds, potatoes
Potential Diseases:
Eustachian tube blockage, Sinus problems, Acne rosacea, Varicose veins, White discharges, Tonillitis, Fat digestion problems
Kali Phosphorica
Kali phosphoricum (Phosphate of Potassium). The optic thalamus is in the center of the head and connects the pineal gland to the pituitary body. These are thought to correspond to the reason and intuition. Potassium phosphate produces the highest rate of vibration. It is thought to be the invisible fire of Nature and is the greatest healing agent known. This yellow-green salt accelerates the cerebrospinal system and effects the use of heat in the body.
MANIFESTATIONS INDICATING CELL SALT USE: 
  • Headache which is relieved when arising or looking upward
  • Drooping eyelids
  • Humming or buzzing in the ears
  • Right-sided facial neuralgia, which is relieved by cold
  • Gums receding, bleed easily, and are spongy
  • Incontinence. Bleeding from the urethra
  • Asthma aggravated by food. Shortness of breath on going upstairs
  • Subnormal temperatures
  • Female, scanty menses, ineffective labor
  • Male, nocturnal emissions, diminished sexual power, exhaustion after coitus

Is Cell Salt
Organs and Tissues Affected:
Spleen, Nerves, Brain, Muscles, Mucus membranes, Skin, Temples

Facial Signs of Deficiency:
Location: Sunken temples and cheeks, overall gray coloring, dull eyes
Skin Appearance:
Color: Ash-gray
Texture: Ash-gray appearance, frosted look of eyes, sunken cheeks, bad breath


Physical Symptoms of Deficiency:
Poor gum and dental health, Nervousness, Depression, Bad breath, Nerve and sleep problems, Anxiety

Tongue Symptoms of Deficiency:
Coated dark yellow to brown, dry and inflamed and swollen. Creeping paralysis

Emotional Symptoms of Deficiency:
Nervous irritability, weak memory, test anxiety, tension, moody depression, anger, self-pity, feeling of being insulted and disgraced by family

Discharges Indicative of Deficiency:
Profuse orange discharges from rectum or vagina. Yellowish creamy discharges in general

Foods Rich in Salt:
White beans, soybeans, cucumbers, almonds, spinach, pork, hazelnuts, peanuts, lentils
Potential Diseases:
Neurasthenia, Fatigue, Anxiety, Panic attacks, Sciatica, Bedweeting, Tinnitis, Bad breath, Yellow discharges
Kali Sulphuricum
Kali Sulphuricum (Potassium Sulphate). The abdominal cavity and its contents. Emotional and intellectual conciliation is the working order of complete assimilation. It is the psychic realm, perfectly neutral until effected by exterior conditions. This chemical helps select that material which is useful to the body and separate it from the waste which is to be rejected. Kali Sulph creates the proper activity for the oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon which depend on its predominant green color.
MANIFESTATIONS INDICATING CELL SALT USE:
  • Evening headaches
  • Eustachian deafness
  • Aches in heated room
  • Dread of hot drinks
  • Abdomen cold to the touch
  • Hemorrhoids
  • Menses, late and scanty
  • Bronchial asthma, worse in evening and in warm room
  • Wandering pains in nape, back, and limbs in warm room
  • Psoriasis, eczema

Is Cell Salt
Organs and Tissues Affected:
Pancreas, Liver, Skin, Mucus membranes, Glands, Respiratory organs, Pancreas, Pigmentation

Facial Signs of Deficiency:
Location: Brown to yellow entire face, typically around the mouth.
Skin Appearance:
Color: Brownish-yellow or ocher pigmentation, liver spots, age spots, vitiligo, freckles.
Texture: Craves fresh air, brownish-yellow appearance, pigmentation, freckles, vitiligo, pregnancy mask.


Physical Symptoms of Deficiency:
Third stage of fever (103–105 deg), Hyper or hypo pigmentation, Freckles, Liver or old-age spots, Browness of skin coloring, Cravings for fresh air, Skin dandruff, Thick yellow discharges, Constantly changing symptoms

Tongue Symptoms of Deficiency:
Coated yellow and slimy with a dull taste in mouth

Emotional Symptoms of Deficiency:
Fearful dreams, need for self-validation, sensitivity to noises, irritability, anger

Discharges Indicative of Deficiency:
General yellow to green slimy discharges. Profuse and thin discharges

Foods Rich in Salt:
Pork, hazelnuts, peanuts, almonds, spinach, lentils, peas, nuts
Potential Diseases:
High fevers, Vitiligo (lack of pigmentation), Freckles, Eczema, Sinusitis, Psoriasis, Asthma
Magnesia Phosphorica
Magnesia Phosphorica (Phosphate of Magnesia). This chemical is the fluid that is the remedy for all spasmodic and impulsive deficiencies. It is the pot that forever filters and scatters the Elixir of life. All the blood in the body passes through the heart. It becomes the Alchemical Vase. As in the Tarot card, the energy that rising up in the sympathetic system, as the strong lion, becomes tamed in the heart and therefore closes and controls the mouth of that energy.
MANIFESTATIONS INDICATING CELL SALT USE:
  • Eye pain on right side relieved by warmth
  • Blurred vision, colored lights before eyes
  • Pain behind right ear, worse in cold air or cold water
  • Thirst for very cold drinks
  • Flatulent colic relieved by rubbing and warmth
  • Angina pectoris, nervous spasmodic palpitation
  • Chilliness after eating in the evening
  • Leg cramps, writer's cramp,
  • Sciatica
  • Any malady that is worse on the right and relieved by warmth and presure
  • Female: Menstrual colic, vaginitis

Is Cell Salt
Organs and Tissues Affected:
Heart, Colon, Nerves, Muscles, Glands, Smooth muscles

Facial Signs of Deficiency:
Location: Facial redness or acute blushing.
Skin Appearance:
Color: Redness (chronic)
Texture: Chronic redness, nerve spots, alcohol redness.


Physical Symptoms of Deficiency:
Chocolate or sugar cravings, Blushing, Cramping and shooting pains, Muscle paralysis

Tongue Symptoms of Deficiency:
Swollen clean tongue (a swollen tongue usually has teeth marks on the edge)

Emotional Symptoms of Deficiency:
Sensitivity, outgoing nature, complaints regarding physical problems, impulsivity, quick action

Discharges Indicative of Deficiency:
White thin discharges of the nose and dark stringy vaginal discharges

Foods Rich in Salt:
Brazil nuts, white beans, wheat, soybeans, corn, walnuts, peanuts, peas
Potential Diseases:
Cramps, Painful cramping menses, Right sided sciatica, Teethaches (hyperisum), Neuralgic pains, Gas pains etc.
Natrum Muriaticum
Natrum Muriaticum (Chloride of Sodium). Although this is table salt, it is used in the body as the basis of the blood, which is salty without the other ingredients. It is the basic chemical value of the circulatory system and it could be called the Great Sea in the body. It is "Living water" and carries true spiritual knowledge in the highest vibration when perfectly balanced.
MANIFESTATIONS INDICATING CELL SALT USE:
  • Illness from grief, anger, or fright
  • Headaches of a throbbing, blinding nature relieved by sleep
  • Eyes burn and pain when looking down, lids swollen
  • Roaring and ringing in ears
  • Fever blisters, eruptions around mouth; deep crack in center of lower lip
  • Unquenchable thirst, hungry though overweight
  • Distended abdomen
  • Pain after urinating
  • Male: Impotence with retarded emission
  • Female: Menses irregular, usually profuse; vagina dry
  • Cough with bursting pain in head
  • Heart palpitate; feeling of coldness of heart
  • Nervous jerking during sleep; sleepy before noon
  • Fever blisters, warts on palms. Eczema; raw, red, inflamed - worse from eating salt, and at seashore.
  • Better when lying on right side, pressure against back. Better from cold baths, and open air.

Is Cell Salt
Organs and Tissues Affected:
Digestion, Connective tissue, Upper stomach, Kidneys, Bladder, Blood, Muscles, Glands, Mucus membranes, Cartilage, Brain, Heart, Spleen, Liver

Facial Signs of Deficiency:
Location: Lower eyelashes, nose, cheek, chin or forehead.
Skin Appearance: Gelatinous. This is often found on the upper eyelid or the edge of the eyelashes on the lower eyelid. When the greasy part of the skin is wiped clean, this quality will reappear after 20-30 minutes.
Color: Red border at hairline
Texture: Inflamed eyelids, large pores, dandruff, dry skin, puffy cheeks, spongy or bloated appearance, bell-shaped nose, sweat, greasy skin.


Physical Symptoms of Deficiency:
Dandruff, Dryness, Loss of smell or taste, High blood pressure, Cracking joints, Sinus, Must have sun glasses, Head cold and congestion; Clear/Watery discharges; Sun sensitivity; Cold sores

Tongue Symptoms of Deficiency:
Frothy coating, bubbles on the sides. Numbness and tingling. Peeled appearance on sides

Emotional Symptoms of Deficiency:
Isolation, control issues, sun sensitivity, deep grief, forgiveness issues

Discharges Indicative of Deficiency:
Clear thin watery discharges

Foods Rich in Salt:
Red beets, lentils, radishes, tomatoes, sea salt, milk, celery, celery seeds, goat whey
Potential Diseases:
Depression, Grief, Herpes, (facial or genital), Infertility, M.S, Sun problems, Vaginal dryness, Clear runny nasal or Sinus discharges
Natrum Phosphoricum
Natrum Phosphoricum (Phosphate of Soda) - The purpose of this chemical is to balance the difference between alkaline and acid. This alkaline tissue-builder is made from bone-ash by neutralizing phosphoric acid with carbonate of sodium. Natrum phos holds the balance between the acids and the normal fluids of the human body. A certain amount of acid is necessary and is always present in the stomach and liver fluids, but an excess of acid is due to a deficiency in alkaline chemicals. An absence of Sodium Phosphate allows the acids to run riot in the body.
MANIFESTATIONS INDICATING CELL SALT USE:
  • Head feels full and throbbing in the morning
  • One ear hot, red, and itchy while having gastric upset
  • Blisters on tip of tongue
  • Rheumatic knees
  • Aching wrists and fingers, sore hamstrings; back feels weak
  • Male: Emission without dreams, desire without erection
  • Female: Sterility; no acid secretion from vagina
  • Itching skin, particularly ankles
  • Feet ice cold in daytime, burn at night
  • Swelling of lymph glands

Is Cell Salt
Organs and Tissues Affected:
Stomach, Tissues, Lymphatics, Genitals, Intestines, Mucus membranes, Lower stomach, Bile ducts, Nerves

Facial Signs of Deficiency:
Location: general yellow to red coloring: nose, mouth, forehead, chin, and cheeks.
Skin Appearance: Greasy. It has a greasy feel
Color: Red chin
Texture: Combination skin, cholesterol deposits (raised yellow pimple-like growths around the eyes), blackheads, pimples, acne, upper lip wrinkles, fatty deposits, red chin, acid spots, dry skin, dry or greasy hair, greasy sweat.


Physical Symptoms of Deficiency:
Acne, Hearburn, Digestion, Hypoglycemia, Blackheads, Swollen glands, Sugar cravings, Sour smell, Greasy or brittle hair, Split ends, Over acidic conditions, Candida

Tongue Symptoms of Deficiency:
Yellow creamy coating on back of tongue. Blisters on the tip with stinging; hairlike sensation on tongue

Emotional Symptoms of Deficiency:
Depression from overly sensitive nerves, sleeplessness, low self-esteem

Discharges Indicative of Deficiency:
Sour, creamy or honey colored thin discharges

Foods Rich in Salt:
Lentils, pork, asparagus, spinach, rose hips, oats, olives, carrots
Potential Diseases:
Parasites, Creamy yellow discharges, Acidity, Jaundice, Candida, Acne, Blackheads
Natrum Sulphuricum
Natrum Sulphuricum (Sulphate of sodium). This lemon-colored salt aids in transmitting impulses from the cerebellum, the idea area of the brain to the action area of the body, the vocal chords. Thus, ideas become spoken and moved into action.
MANIFESTATIONS INDICATING CELL SALT USE:
  • Boring feeling in right temple, preceded by burning in stomach
  • Piercing pain at back of neck, at base of brain
  • After injury to the head
  • Earache or lightning-like stitches in ears during damp weather
  • Mucous dripping into the back of the throat
  • Gas in ascending colon, worse before breakfast
  • Loose morning stools, worse in wet weather
  • Female, nosebleed during menses; burning in the pharynx during menstruation
  • Pain in hip joints, worse on left
  • Stiffness in knees during damp, cold weather

Is Cell Salt
Organs and Tissues Affected:
Liver, Gallbladder, Pancreas, Colon, Head

Facial Signs of Deficiency:
Location: General green coloring to a chronic red; indications on the nose; bags under the eyes
Skin Appearance:
Color: Greenish-yellow, bluish-red, yellowish
Texture: Greenish-yellowish coloring, swollen lower eyelid sacks, yellowish sclera, bad-smelling gas.


Physical Symptoms of Deficiency:
Foul-smelling gas, Swollen feet or hands, Head injuries, Depression, Suicidal feelings, Itching skin, Skin has a greenish tinge, Lower eyelid sacks. Worse in wet, cold or damp weather

Tongue Symptoms of Deficiency:
Greenish-brown swelling or gray coating on the back of tongue or slimy thick white mucus coating

Emotional Symptoms of Deficiency:
Depression from wet weather or head injuries

Discharges Indicative of Deficiency:
Watery yellowish to greenish discharges

Foods Rich in Salt:
Lentils, pork, spinach, oats
Potential Diseases:
Head injuries, Bad gas, Epilepsy after head injury, Spinal meningtis, Diabetes, Photophobia, Asthma especially in children, Bitter taste, Yellowish discharges
Silicea
Silicea (Silica, pure flint). The sciatic nerve carries the steel-like temper of long-range endurance. It is purity in this form; in others, it is quartz or crystal. (It is made by fusing silica with carbonate of soda; dissolve the residue, filter, and precipitate by hydrochloric acid.) The bio-chemic process which occurs when run through plant life makes it accessible to the blood stream. Silica is called the surgeon of the body. It supplies materials for nails, hair and, what we know as periosteum membrane covering and protecting bone. Also the nerve sheath called neurilemma, and a trace is found in the bone tissue. In the last analysis it supplies the polish, or gloss, for the nails and hair. In its powdered form, under the microscope, it takes the shape of arrowheads. This point is pertinent to "the archer" Sagittarius. Decaying organic matter must be discharged from the body to clear the hips, thighs, and the sciatic nerve.
MANIFESTATIONS INDICATING CELL SALT USE:
  • Nervous and excitable, sensitive to all impressions
  • Obstinate, headstrong children
  • Vertigo from looking up or lying on left side
  • Eyes averse to daylight, tender to touch. Worse when cold - sties, cataract.
  • Sneezing in morning; loss of smell, itching at point of nose
  • Facial neuralgia, worse when cold and damp
  • Abscess at root of teeth; pyorrhea, sensitive to cold water
  • Hemorrhoids, and fissures at rectum; difficult stool descent
  • Male - sore genitals, nocturnal emissions
  • Female - itching vulva, discharge of blood between periods, hard lumps in breast, nipples sore and drawn in
  • Very susceptible to drafts on back; pain in coccyx
  • Restless sleep, head hot, excessive gaping
  • Sciatic, pains in hips, legs and feet; cramping calves and soles; tremulous hands when using them
  • Soreness under toes, offensive foot odor, ingrown toe nails
  • Chilliness, very sensitive to cold air
  • Any problem which worsens from lying on the left side, cold, damp conditions. Gets better if head is wrapped.

Is Cell Salt
Organs and Tissues Affected:
Connective tissue, Bones, Skin, Nerves, Nutrition, Hair, Nails, Glands, Eustachian tubes, Cartilage

Facial Signs of Deficiency:
Location: bald head, shiny nose, wrinkles that start by the ears, sunken eyes, crow’s-feet wrinkles
Skin Appearance: Glassy or polished
Color: No special color
Texture: Wrinkles in general, vertical wrinkles parallel to the ears, laugh lines, crows feet, deep eyelids, polished shine, split ends, sensitivity to light, fingernail problems, red eyes (burst veins of the eyeballs).


Physical Symptoms of Deficiency:
Light sensitivity, Hip pains, Sensitivity of skin to wounds, Scarring, Hernia, Sweaty hands and feet, Stinky feet, Smelly armpits, Light and noise sensivity, Dry brittle nails Splinters, Skin problems in general

Tongue Symptoms of Deficiency:
One-sided swelling of tongue. Brown tongue, hardening and ulcered. Sensation as if a hair on tongue

Emotional Symptoms of Deficiency:
Shyness, lack of grit, hypersensitivity, sensitivity to cold

Discharges Indicative of Deficiency:
Thick yellow offensive discharges from boils and infections, and sweating. Infected parts are often painful

Foods Rich in Salt:
Millet, whole rice, oats, whole grains, wheat, peas, carrots, cucumbers, strawberries, parsley
Potential Diseases:
Splinters, Keloids (raised scars), Vaccination reactions, Emaciation, Exhaustion, Pus formation, Skin problems

Nadis

Go to top
Nadi Chakra Aperture Location Description
Yashasvati --- Tips of Right Thumb, Big Toe Runs from root to navel chakra where it branches out. NA
Hastijihva --- Tips of Left Thumb, Big Toe Runs from root to navel chakra where it branches out. NA
Sushhumna Sahasrara Eyes From base of spine to top of head, with many nadis branching out from it in the region of third eye. NA
Shankhini Ajna Left Ear Branches out from third-eye, goes to left ear which is its orifice. NA
Payasvini Ajna Right Ear Branches out from third-eye, goes to right ear which is its orifice. NA
Gandhari Ajna Left Eye Branches out from third-eye, goes to left eye which is its orifice. NA
Pusha Ajna Right Eye Branches out from third-eye, goes to right eye which is its orifice. NA
Ida Ajna Left Nostril Branches out from third-eye, goes to left nostril which is its orifice. NA
Pingala Ajna Right Nostril Branches out from third-eye, goes to right nostril which is its orifice. NA
Sarasvati Vishuddhi Mouth and throat From base of spine to throat chakra. NA
Varuna Anahata Skin From base of spine to heart chakra and from it throughout the entire body. NA
Vishvodhara Manipura Navel From base of spine to the navel and from it throughout the abdomen. NA
Kuhu Swadhisthana Penis/Vagina From base of spine to sex chakra and forward to the end of the urethra. NA
Alambusha Muladhara Anus From center of root chakra to tip of rectum NA

Srotas

Go to top
Srota Srota Type Root Passage Opening Points Description Functions Signs of excess flow Signs of deficiency flow Signs of blocked flow Signs of flow through wrong channel
Pranavaha
LifeForce channel
Govern the intake of substances into body Left chamber of Heart Respiratory system Nose PC-8,
M-HN-3
These carry our life force and run through the entirety of the respiratory system. The prana is absorbed through the lungs and the colon. If there is some issue in the root organ (left chamber of the heart), then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. The pranavaha srotas also connect to and work with the Pranamaya kosha. Respiratory tract, bronchial tree including alveoli Rapid breathing and hyperventilation. Slow or shallow breathing and shortness of breath. Difficulty in breathing accompanied by coughing, wheezing or asthma. There may also be hiatal hernias. Lungs could be perforated.
Annavaha
Food channel
Govern the intake of substances into body Esophagus and greater curvature of stomach Gastrointestinal tract Ileocecal valve TH-9,
BL-57
These are the channels responsible for carrying our food. These srotas are the main channels in the body. If there is some issue in the root organ, then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. Digestion, Assimilation, Absorption Excessive appetite, hyperacidity and possibly diarrhea. Suppressed apprtite as well as hypoacidity, anorexia and constipation. Intestinal obstruction and the formation of tumors. There may be vomiting and perforations of the stomach or intestines, or perforated ulcers.
Ambuvaha
Water Metabolism channel
Govern the intake of substances into body Pancreas Gastrointestinal mucous membrane Kidneys, Tongue, Sweat glands LI-14,
PC-2,
BL-40,
CV-3
These channels carry water and other fluids throughout the body, including the cerebrospinal fluid, saliva, and the gastric mucosal and pancreatic secretions. This is the fluid-absorbing aspect of digestion. These srotas govern the assimilation of water and foods that contain water. If there is some issue in the root organ, then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. Body temperature, Lubrication, Energy, Electrolyte balance, Selection of wastes Excessive thirst, a sharp taste in the mouth and hypoglycemia. Lack of taste in the mouth, nausea and hyperglycemia. Diabetes or other serious problems of the pancreas such as cancer. Vomiting and anorexia.
Rasavaha
Plasma channel
Supply 7 dhatus or bodily tissues Right chamber of heart and ten great blood vessels Network of blood vessels and Lymphatic systems Arteriole venous junction in capillaries TH-9 These are the channels of the lymph (rasa) dhatu that carry the plasma. They are connected to the lymphatic and circulatory systems. If there is some issue in the root organ, then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. Nutrition, Affection (prlnana), Immunity, Faith, Regulation of blood pressure and volume Edema, as well as swelling of the glands and lymph glands. Dehydration and emaciation. Overly swollen glands, major lymphatic obstructions and lymphatic cancer. Bleeding as well as the coughing up of blood.
Raktavaha
Blood channel
Supply 7 dhatus or bodily tissues Liver and Spleen Circulatory system Skin LI-18,
ST-8,
CV-17
These channels carry the blood and relate to the circulatory system. If there is some issue in the root organ, then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. Life function, Oxygenation, Enthusiasm Rapid pulse, heart palpitations and hypertension. Slow pulse with hypotension and varicose veins. Arrhythmia, an enlarged liver or spleen, clotting of the blood, tumors or heart attacks. Different types of bleeding disorders.
Mamsavaha
Muscle channel
Supply 7 dhatus or bodily tissues Ligaments and skin where the muscle tissues are attached All muscles of the body Through all the skin SP-3 These channels supply the muscle tissue with nutrients. If there is some issue in the root organ, then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. Plastering, Form, Movement, Support, Protection, Strength Hyperactivity of muscles and tremors may occur. Under activity of the muscles that can cause loss or lack of muscle tone and spasms. Chronic inflammation in the muscles, as well as tumors. Muscles that are more easily torn.
Medavaha
Fat channel
Supply 7 dhatus or bodily tissues Abdominal fat, Kidneys, Adrenals Subcutaneous fat tissue Sebaceous glands CV-2 These channels supply fat issue with nutrients. If there is some issue in the root organ, then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. Lubrication (snehan), Personal love, Beauty, Insulation, Bulk to body Edema and Obesity. Emaciation with dryness of the skin. Tumors in adipose/fat tissue. May lead to the tearing of fat tissue.
Asthivaha
Bone channel
Supply 7 dhatus or bodily tissues Adipose tissue and hips/pelvic girdle/sacrum Skeletal system Nails and the hair ST-8 These channels nourish the bones and skeletal system. If there is some issue in the root organ, then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. Support, Structure, Protection of vital organs Excess of bone tissue. Weak bones, deficient bone tissue and osteoporosis. Bone sppurs, calcification of the bones and cancer. Wrong flow also occurs when a bone is broken.
Majjavaha
Nervous or Marrow channel
Supply 7 dhatus or bodily tissues Joints and bones, and secondarily by the brain and spinal cord Entire nervous system (central, sympathetic and parasympathetic) Synaptic space GV-20,
GV-25,
GV-27
These supply the nerve tissue and bone marror with nutrients. If there is some issue in the root organ, then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. Fills bone spaces, Sensation, Communication, Learning, Memory, Coordination Hypersensitivity, Pain, Insomnia, Tremors and an oerly heightened sense of perception. Hyposensivity, numbness (physical and emotional), dulllness, lethargy and a clouded sense of perception. Convulsions, multiple sclerosis and one may even enter into a coma. Nerve tissue damage
Shukravaha
Reproductive fluid channel
Supply 7 dhatus or bodily tissues Testes and nipples Prostate gland, urethra, epididymus and the urogenital tract. Opening of the urethra. GB-29,
CV-2
These are the channels through which nutrients are transported to the male reproductive system. These srotas are also connected to the secretions that occur during sexual activities. If there is some issue in the root organ, then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. Reproduction, Produces ojas, Emotional release Spermatorrhea, involuntary nocturnal emissions, premature ejaculation and leucorrhea. Difficulty to attain an erection, as well as delayed ejaculation. Inability to ejaculate, testicular swelling, prostate stones and tumors. Sperm may enter into the bladder.
Purishavaha
Faecal channel
Govern elimination of metabolic waste materials from body Cecum, rectum and the colon Large intestine Anus GV-15,
GV-16,
CV-2
These channels carry feces. If there is some issue in the root organ, then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. Absorption of minerals, Strength, Support, Formation & elimination of feces Diarrhea Constipation Onstructions to the colon and there may be diverticulitis or tumors. Perforation in the colon.
Mutravaha
Urinary channel
Govern elimination of metabolic waste materials from body Kidneys Ureters, urethra and bladder. Opening of urethra. BL-30,
BL-36,
GB-29
These channels carry the urine, and include the entire urinary system. If there is some issue in the root organ, then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. Electrolyte balance, Elimination of urine, Maintenance of blood pressure Excessive or frequent urination. Scant urination Painful and difficult urination, and there may be stones in the urinary tract. Bladder can bust.
Svedavaha
Sweat channel
Govern elimination of metabolic waste materials from body Sweat glands Sweat ducts Pores of the skin and the sweat glands underneath the skin. LV-2,
LV-3
These are the channels that carry sweat, the sebaceous glands. These srotas are intrinsically connected the adipose/fat tissue. The more fat the body has, the more the body sweats. If there is some issue in the root organ, then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. Elimination of liquid wastes, Perspiration, Electrolyte balance, Body temperature, Lubrication Profuse sweating will occur. Temporary lack of sweating. Complete inability ot sweat. Sweat will enter into lymphatic system (rasa) dhatu.
Artavavaha
Menstruation channel
Govern female systems Ovaries and areola Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervical canal and vagina Labia BL-30,
BL-36,
GB-29,
SP-6
These are the channels through which nutrients are transported to the female reproductive system. These srotas have some responbility for the menstruation and also nourish the reporductive tissue, or the ova. It goerns the production of hormones and other sexual secretions. If there is some issue in the root organ, then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. Reproduction, Produces ojas, Emotional release Spermatorrhea, involuntary nocturnal emissions, premature ejaculation and leucorrhea. Difficulty to attain an erection, as well as delayed ejaculation. Inability to ejaculate, testicular swelling, prostate stones and tumors. Sperm may enter into the bladder.
Stanyavaha
Lactation channel
Govern female systems Lactation glands Lactiferous dicts Nipple (it function only when a women gives birth) SP-6,
CV-17
These are the channels that carry breast milk for lactating women. If there is some issue in the root organ, then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. Lactation Excess of breast milk Lack of breast milk No breast milk, painful and swelling breasts, mastitis, cysts, tumors or cancer. Injury to the breasts.
Manovaha
Mental channel
Govern mind system Heart or cardiac plexus and the ten sensory pathways Whole body Sense organs HE-7,
GV-20
These are the channels of the mind that carry thoughts. They are not only physical channels, but subtle channels as well, and are critical in the development of a balanced mind. These channels are lcoated in the merve tissue and arr part of our emotional process. The Manovaha srotas maske up the subtle body and are part of the Manomaya kosha. The mind is directly connected to the parts of the nervous system and physical body that are resposible for the sensory and motor system. When in its higher state of awareness, the mind transcends physical body consciousness. If there is some issue in the root organ, then the entire srotas will be messed up, which can then cause disease. But if the problem is in srotas, then it is not necessary for root organ to have issue. Thinking, Feeling, Inquiring, Deciding, Discrimination, Desire, Memory, Communication Mental unrest, Hyperactive mind and senses and one may worry to have a lot of anger. Dulled senses and depression, with predominant emotions of gried and sadness. Blocked or suppressed emotions Major psychological probles like delirium, delusion (including delusions of grandeur) and schizophrenia.

Marmas

Go to top

Srotas are NOT mapped to Marmas but instead assigned to AcupuncturePoints because in authentic marma (from SouthIndia and also as mentioned in Vasant Lad's), the marma have different names as used in today's world. In reality the smaller marmas/siras are mapped which happens to exctly correspond with AcupuncturePoints.

Marmas for each Chakra
Marma Chakra
Adhipati
Sahasrara
Manya
Vishuddhi
Nila
Vishuddhi
Sthapani
Ajna
Guda
Muladhara
Hridaya
Anahata
Nabhi
Manipura
Amsa
Vishuddhi
Amsaphalaka
Anahata
Brihati
Manipura
Kukundara
Swadhisthana
Vitapa
Swadhisthana
Marmas in each Region
Region Marmas
Head and Neck
Adhipati, Apanga, Avarta, Krikatika, Manya, Nila, Phana, Shankha, Shringataka, Simanta, Sira Matrika, Sthapani, Utkshepa, Vidhura
Abdomen and Chest
Apalapa, Apastambha, Basti, Guda, Hridaya, Nabhi, Stanamula, Stanarohita
Back and Hips
Amsa, Amsaphalaka, Brihati, Katikataruna, Kukundara, Nitamba, Parshvasandhi
Arms and Hands
Ani, Bahvi, Indrabasti, Kakshadhara, Kshipra, Kurcha, Kurchashira, Kurpara, Lohitaksha, Manibandha, Talahridaya, Urvi
Legs and Feet
Ani, Gulpha, Indrabasti, Janu, Kshipra, Kurcha, Kurchashira, Lohitaksha, Talahridaya, Urvi, Vitapa
Marmas in each Category
Category Marmas
Sandhi
Joint

Adhipati, Avarta, Krikatika, Simanta, Kukundara, Kurpara, Manibandha, Gulpha, Janu
Sira
Point on Dhamani

Apanga, Manya, Nila, Phana, Sira Matrika, Sthapani, Apalapa, Hridaya, Nabhi, Stanamula, Brihati, Parshvasandhi, Bahvi, Lohitaksha, Urvi, Lohitaksha, Urvi
Asthi
Bone

Shankha, Amsaphalaka, Katikataruna, Nitamba
Dhamani
Channel

Shringataka, Vidhura, Apastambha, Guda
Snayu
Ligaments and Tendons

Utkshepa, Basti, Amsa, Ani, Kakshadhara, Kshipra, Kurcha, Kurchashira, Ani, Kshipra, Kurcha, Kurchashira, Vitapa
Mamsa
Muscle

Stanarohita, Indrabasti, Talahridaya, Indrabasti, Talahridaya
Lethal Marmas
Lethal Marmas
Sadya Pranahara
Death immediately or within 24 hours

Adhipati, Shankha, Shringataka, Sira Matrika, Basti, Guda, Hridaya, Nabhi
Vaikalyakara
Maiming or deformity when injured

Apanga, Avarta, Krikatika, Manya, Nila, Phana, Vidhura, Amsa, Amsaphalaka, Kukundara, Ani, Bahvi, Kakshadhara, Kurcha, Kurpara, Lohitaksha, Urvi, Ani, Janu, Kurcha, Lohitaksha, Urvi, Vitapa
Kalantara Pranahara
Death within 2 to 4 weeks

Simanta, Apalapa, Apastambha, Stanamula, Stanarohita, Brihati, Katikataruna, Nitamba, Parshvasandhi, Indrabasti, Kshipra, Talahridaya, Indrabasti, Kshipra, Talahridaya
Vishalyaghna
Death when foreign object is extracted

Sthapani, Utkshepa
Rujakara
Causing persistent prolonged pain

Kurchashira, Manibandha, Gulpha, Kurchashira

All Marmas
Marma Chakra Region/Category/Lethal Description Acupuncture Points Indications/Actions/Contradictions
Adhipati
Overlord

Location: Top of the head
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 1
Sahasrara Region: Head and Neck
Category: Sandhi (Joint)
Lethal: Sadya Pranahara (Death immediately or within 24 hours)
Point # Actions
GV-20
  • Pacifies wind and subdues yang
  • Raises yang and counters prolapse
  • Benefits the head and sense organs
  • Nourishes the sea of marrow
  • Benefits the brain and calms the spirit
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Mind, Nerves, Epilepsy, Treatment of psychiatric diseases and nervous system disorders, Pranic energy balancer, pineal gland and brain disorders
Apanga
Looking away

Location: Outer corner of the eyes
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Head and Neck
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
TH-23
  • Eliminates wind and alleviates pain
  • Benefits the eyes
GB-1
  • Benefits the eyes, eliminates wind and clears heat.
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Vision, Reduces nervous stress
Avarta
Disaster

Location: Midpoint above the eyes
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Head and Neck
Category: Sandhi (Joint)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
GB-14
  • Eliminates wind, benefits the head and alleviates pain
  • Benefits the eyes
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Depression, Vision, Posture, Eye disease, Sinusitis (frontal) and temporal headaches
Krikatika
Joint of the neck

Location: Joint of the neck
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Head and Neck
Category: Sandhi (Joint)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
GV-15
  • Benefits the tongue and treats muteness
  • Eliminates wind
  • Benefits the neck and spine
GV-16
  • Eliminates wind
  • Nourishes the sea of marrow and benefits the head and neck
  • Calms the Spirit
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Tremors, Disability, Stiffness, Neck and shoulder pain
Manya
Honor

Location: Side of upper neck
Size: 4 anguli
Number: 2
Vishuddhi Region: Head and Neck
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
LI-18
  • Benefits the throat and voice
  • Alleviates cough and wheezing
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Speech, Taste, Perception, Blood, Transfer marma
Nila
Dark Blue

Location: Base of the throat
Size: 4 anguli
Number: 2
Vishuddhi Region: Head and Neck
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
LI-18
  • Benefits the throat and voice
  • Alleviates cough and wheezing
ST-9
  • Regulates qi and blood and lowers rebellion
  • Benefits the throat and neck
  • Alleviates pain
CV-23
  • Benefits the tongue
  • Descends qi and alleviates cough
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Transfer point. Balances the sense of timing and treats aphonia and loss of taste.
Phana
A serpent hood

Location: Side of the nostrils
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Head and Neck
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
LI-19
  • Eliminates wind and opens the nasal passages
LI-20
  • Opens the nasal passages
  • Expels wind and clears heat
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Smell, Sinus, Ears, Stress, Nosebleed
Shankha
A conch shell

Location: Temple
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Head and Neck
Category: Asthi (Bone)
Lethal: Sadya Pranahara (Death immediately or within 24 hours)
Point # Actions
M-HN-9
  • Eliminates wind and clears heat
  • Reduces swelling and stops pain
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Colon, Treats hearing, Temporal headaches
Shringataka
Place where four roads meet

Location: Soft palate of the mouth
Size: 4 anguli
Number: 4
Region: Head and Neck
Category: Dhamani (Channel)
Lethal: Sadya Pranahara (Death immediately or within 24 hours)
Point # Actions
BL-4
  • Expels wind, clears the head and alleviates pain
  • Benefits the eyes and nose
BL-5
  • Eliminates wind, descends yang and clears heat
  • Clears the head and nose
GB-4
  • Eliminates wind and clears heat
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
GB-15
  • Eliminates wind, benefits the head and alleviates pain
  • Benefits the nose and eyes
ST-8
  • Eliminates wind and alleviates pain
  • Benefits the eyes
GV-22
  • Benefits the nose
  • Eliminates wind and benefits the head
GV-23
  • Benefits the nose and eyes
  • Eliminates wind, benefits the head and face and dispels swelling
  • Calms the spirit
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Stimulates the Nervous system, Soothe the eyes, ears, nose, tongue.
Simanta
Summit

Location: Fissures on the skull
Size: 4 anguli
Number: 5
Region: Head and Neck
Category: Sandhi (Joint)
Lethal: Kalantara Pranahara (Death within 2 to 4 weeks)
Point # Actions
M-HN-1
  • Calms the spirit
  • Pacifies wind
  • Benefits the eyes and ears
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Sanity, Grounding, Intelligence, Blood, Migraine, Lacrimation, Fear
Sira Matrika
Mother of the blood vessels

Location: Base of the neck
Size: 4 anguli
Number: 8
Region: Head and Neck
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Sadya Pranahara (Death immediately or within 24 hours)
Point # Actions
LI-17
  • Benefits the throat and voice
SI-17
  • Benefits the neck and throat and disperses swelling
  • Descends rebellious qi
  • Benefits the ears
TH-16
  • Benefits the head and sense organs
  • Regulates and descends qi
GB-20
  • Eliminates wind
  • Benefits the head and eyes
  • Clears the sense organs
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
GB-21
  • Regulates qi, activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Transforms and lowers phlegm and dissipates nodules
  • Benefits the breasts and expedites delivery
GV-15
  • Benefits the tongue and treats muteness
  • Eliminates wind
  • Benefits the neck and spine
CV-23
  • Benefits the tongue
  • Descends qi and alleviates cough
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Blood circulation
Sthapani
What gives support or fixes

Location: Point between the eyes
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 1
Ajna Region: Head and Neck
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Vishalyaghna (Death when foreign object is extracted)
Point # Actions
M-HN-3
  • Pacifies wind and calms the shen
  • Benefits the nose
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Main Vayu marma, Balances mind and nervous sytem including Pituitary gland, Hypothalamus
Utkshepa
What is upwards

Location: Above the ears
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Head and Neck
Category: Snayu (Ligaments and Tendons)
Lethal: Vishalyaghna (Death when foreign object is extracted)
Point # Actions
M-HN-10
  • Clears heat and dissipates swelling
  • Benefits the eyes and throat
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Colon, Temporal headaches
Vidhura
Distress

Location: Behind and below the ears
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Head and Neck
Category: Dhamani (Channel)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
TH-16
  • Benefits the head and sense organs
  • Regulates and descends qi
TH-17
  • Benefits the ears
  • Eliminates wind
  • Clears heat
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Hearing, Head support, Ear disorders, Facial paralysis
Apalapa
Unguarded

Location: Armpit or axilla
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Abdomen and Chest
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Kalantara Pranahara (Death within 2 to 4 weeks)
Point # Actions
LU-1
  • Disseminates and descends Lung qi and alleviates cough and wheezing
  • Transforms phlegm, clears heat and regulates the water passages
  • Descends Stomach qi
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Blood, Balances sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
Apastambha
What stands to the side

Location: Upper side of the abdomen
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Abdomen and Chest
Category: Dhamani (Channel)
Lethal: Kalantara Pranahara (Death within 2 to 4 weeks)
Point # Actions
SP-19
  • Regulates and descends qi and unbinds the chest
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Blood, Lungs, Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems, Asthma, Coughs, Dyspepsia
Basti
Bladder

Location: Lower abdomen
Size: 4 anguli
Number: 1
Region: Abdomen and Chest
Category: Snayu (Ligaments and Tendons)
Lethal: Sadya Pranahara (Death immediately or within 24 hours)
Point # Actions
BL-28
  • Regulates the Bladder
  • Clears damPC-heat from the lower jiao
  • Dispels stagnation and resolves masses
  • Benefits the lumbar region and legs
CV-3
  • Benefits the Bladder, regulates qi transformation and drains damPC-heat
  • Drains dampness and treats leucorrhoea
  • Benefits the uterus and regulates menstruation
  • Dispels stagnation and benefits the lower jiao
  • Fortifies the Kidneys
CV-4
  • Fortifies the original qi and benefits essence
  • Tonifies and nourishes the Kidneys
  • Warms and fortifies the Spleen
  • Benefits the uterus and assists conception
  • Regulates the lower jiao and benefits the Bladder
  • Regulates Small Intestine qi
  • Restores collapse
CV-5
  • Moves and benefits the water passages
  • Regulates qi and alleviates pain
  • Regulates the uterus
CV-6
  • Fosters original qi
  • Tonifies qi
  • Tonifies the Kidneys and fortifies yang
  • Rescues collapse of yang
  • Regulates qi and harmonises blood
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Urinary, Basti
Guda
Anus

Location: Anus
Size: 4 anguli
Number: 1
Muladhara Region: Abdomen and Chest
Category: Dhamani (Channel)
Lethal: Sadya Pranahara (Death immediately or within 24 hours)
Point # Actions
GV-1
  • Treats haemorrhoids
  • Benefits the two lower yin
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Calms the spirit
CV-1
  • Regulates the anterior and posterior yin
  • Drains damp heat
  • Calms the spirit
  • Promotes resuscitation and revives from drowning
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Stimulates uro-genito functions (Reproduction, Colon, Urine, Gas, Stool). This is also the local Apana Vayu sira on the torso.
Hridaya
Heart

Location: Heart
Size: 4 anguli
Number: 1
Anahata Region: Abdomen and Chest
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Sadya Pranahara (Death immediately or within 24 hours)
Point # Actions
CV-17
  • Regulates qi and unbinds the chest
  • Descends rebellion of the Lung and Stomach
  • Benefits gathering qi
  • Benefits the breasts and promotes lactation
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Controls the centrifugal Pranic flow (Vayu), breast disease, allows balance in circulation and breathing. Main Pitta marma, Vyana vayu, Affects Sadhaka Pitta that causes fantasies and realities to become indistinguishable when vitiated. May treat the Pericardium organ.
Nabhi
Navel

Location: Navel
Size: 4 anguli
Number: 1
Manipura Region: Abdomen and Chest
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Sadya Pranahara (Death immediately or within 24 hours)
Point # Actions
CV-8
  • Warms the yang and rescues collapse
  • Warms and harmonises the intestines
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Seat of all Vein, Transfer points, Small Intestines. When massaged may stimulate the small intestine and Pachaka Pitta. May treat hyperacidity and gastric, duodenal ulcers.
Stanamula
Root of breast

Location: Root of the breast
Size: 2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Abdomen and Chest
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Kalantara Pranahara (Death within 2 to 4 weeks)
Point # Actions
SP-17
  • Dissipates accumulation of food and fluid and promotes digestion
ST-17
ST-18
  • Benefits the breasts and reduces swelling
  • Unbinds the chest and alleviates cough and wheezing
KD-22
  • Unbinds the chest
  • Lowers rebellious Lung and Stomach qi
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Kapha, Pitta, Blood circulation, Assists with cough and apnea
Stanarohita
Upper region of the breast

Location: Upper region of the breast
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Abdomen and Chest
Category: Mamsa (Muscle)
Lethal: Kalantara Pranahara (Death within 2 to 4 weeks)
Point # Actions
SP-20
  • Regulates and descends qi and unbinds the chest
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Kapha, Pitta, Arm Muscles, Sedates arms
Amsa
Shoulder

Location: Shoulder
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Vishuddhi Region: Back and Hips
Category: Snayu (Ligaments and Tendons)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
GB-21
  • Regulates qi, activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Transforms and lowers phlegm and dissipates nodules
  • Benefits the breasts and expedites delivery
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Udana vayu, Brain, Stimulates Throat chakra, Thyroid and the endocrine system
Amsaphalaka
Shoulder blade

Location: Shoulder blade
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Anahata Region: Back and Hips
Category: Asthi (Bone)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
BL-11
  • Benefits the bones and joints
  • Expels pathogenic factors and firms the exterior
  • Regulates Lung qi and alleviates cough
BL-41
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Expels wind and cold
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Vayu, Touch/Sensation, Atrophy, Scapular pain and fourth chakra treatment (chest)
Brihati
Wide or large

Location: Broad region of the upper back
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Manipura Region: Back and Hips
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Kalantara Pranahara (Death within 2 to 4 weeks)
Point # Actions
BL-18
  • Spreads Liver qi
  • Regulates and nourishes Liver blood
  • Pacifies wind
  • Cools fire and clears damPC-heat
  • Benefits the eyes and sinews
BL-47
  • Spreads Liver qi and relaxes the sinews
  • Harmonises the middle jiao
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Major Pitta accumulation site, Coughing of blood, Heart symptoms.
Katikataruna
What rises from the hip

Location: Hip-joint
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Back and Hips
Category: Asthi (Bone)
Lethal: Kalantara Pranahara (Death within 2 to 4 weeks)
Point # Actions
BL-31
  • Regulates the lower jiao and facilitates urination and defecation
  • Regulates menstruation and stops leucorrhoea
  • Benefits the lumbar region and legs
BL-53
  • Benefits the lumbar region, activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Regulates the lower jiao and benefits urination
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Fat, Constipation, Vayu, Treatment of hip joint
Kukundara
What marks the loins

Location: On each side of lower iliac spine
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Swadhisthana Region: Back and Hips
Category: Sandhi (Joint)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
GB-29
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Benefits the hip joint
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Reproduction, Elimination, Leg Mobility, Local, rear Apana Vayu manna
Nitamba
Buttocks

Location: The upper region of the buttocks
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Back and Hips
Category: Asthi (Bone)
Lethal: Kalantara Pranahara (Death within 2 to 4 weeks)
Point # Actions
BL-54
  • Benefits the lumbar region, activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Regulates urination and treats haemorrhoids
GB-29
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Benefits the hip joint
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Vayu, Pitta, Digestion, Vitality, Backache, Sciatica, Paralysis of lower limb, Large intestine problems.
Parshvasandhi
The side of the waist

Location: The upper hips
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Back and Hips
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Kalantara Pranahara (Death within 2 to 4 weeks)
Point # Actions
GB-26
  • Regulates the Girdling vessel and drains dampness
  • Regulates menstruation and stops leucorrhoea
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Pitta, Digestion, Elimination, Circulation.
Ani
The point of a needle

Location: Lower region of the upper arm
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Arms and Hands
Category: Snayu (Ligaments and Tendons)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
LU-4
  • Descends Lung qi
  • Regulates qi and blood in the chest
LI-12
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Benefits the elbow joint
TH-11
  • Activates the channel and dispels wind-damp
  • Clears damPC-heat
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Vayu, Muscle tension, Controls muscle tone
Bahvi
What relates to the arm

Location: Inside of upper arm
Size: 1 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Arms and Hands
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
PC-2
  • Unbinds the chest, invigorates blood and alleviates pain
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions:
Indrabasti
Indra arrow

Location: Center of forearm
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Arms and Hands
Category: Mamsa (Muscle)
Lethal: Kalantara Pranahara (Death within 2 to 4 weeks)
Point # Actions
LU-6
  • Disseminates and descends Lung qi
  • Clears heat and moistens the Lung
  • Clears heat and stops bleeding
  • Moderates acute conditions
PC-4
  • Invigorates blood and dispels stasis
  • Cools blood and stops bleeding
  • Calms the spirit
  • Moderates acute conditions
PC-6
  • Unbinds the chest and regulates qi
  • Regulates the Heart and calms the spirit
  • Harmonises the Stomach and alleviates nausea and vomiting
  • Clears heat
  • Opens the Yin Linking vessel
TH-9
  • Benefits the throat and ears
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Stimulates Digestive Fire (Jataragni), Small Intestine
Kakshadhara
What upholds the flank

Location: Top of shoulder joint
Size: 1 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Arms and Hands
Category: Snayu (Ligaments and Tendons)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
TH-14
  • Dispels wind-damp
  • Alleviates pain and benefits the shoulder joint
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Muscle tension, Affects muscle tone in upper abdomen and chest
Kshipra
Quick to give results

Location: Between thumb and index finger
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Arms and Hands
Category: Snayu (Ligaments and Tendons)
Lethal: Kalantara Pranahara (Death within 2 to 4 weeks)
Point # Actions
LI-4
  • Regulates the defensive qi and adjusts sweating
  • Expels wind and releases the exterior
  • Regulates the face, eyes, nose, mouth and ears
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Induces labour
  • Restores the yang
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Heart, Lungs, Eye pain, Toothache, Redness and pain in fingers
Kurcha
A knot or bundle

Location: Bottom of thumb
Size: 4 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Arms and Hands
Category: Snayu (Ligaments and Tendons)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
LI-5
  • Clears heat and alleviates pain
  • Clears yangming fire
  • Calms the spirit
  • Benefits the wrist joint
TH-3
  • Clears heat
  • Benefits the ears
  • Clears the head and eyes
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Vision, Treatment of large intestine, pain
Kurchashira
The head of kurcha

Location: Base of thumb joint
Size: 1 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Arms and Hands
Category: Snayu (Ligaments and Tendons)
Lethal: Rujakara (Causing persistent prolonged pain)
Point # Actions
SI-5
  • Clears heat and reduces swelling
  • Calms the spirit
TH-4
  • Relaxes the sinews and alleviates pain
  • Clears heat
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Muscle Spasm, Heart and lung symptoms
Kurpara
Elbow joint

Location: Elbow joint
Size: 3 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Arms and Hands
Category: Sandhi (Joint)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
LI-11
  • Clears heat
  • Cools the blood, eliminates wind, drains damp and
  • alleviates itching
  • Regulates qi and blood
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
SI-8
  • Clears heat and dissipates swelling
  • Calms the spirit
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
TH-10
  • Transforms phlegm and dissipates nodules
  • Regulates qi and descends rebellion
  • Calms the spirit
  • Clears heat from the Sanjiao channel
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Heart, Liver, Spleen, Numbness of arm, Elbow pain, Cardiac pain, Coughs, Asthma
Lohitaksha
Red-jointed

Location: Lower frontal end of shoulder joint
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Arms and Hands
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
HE-1
  • Unbinds the chest
  • Activates the channel and benefits the arm
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Fluid movement, Arm Blood supply, Assists circulation and pain in arms.
Manibandha
Bracelet

Location: Wrist
Size: 2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Arms and Hands
Category: Sandhi (Joint)
Lethal: Rujakara (Causing persistent prolonged pain)
Point # Actions
SI-5
  • Clears heat and reduces swelling
  • Calms the spirit
TH-5
  • Expels wind and releases the exterior
  • Benefits the head and ears
  • Opens the Yang Linking vessel
  • Clears heat
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Relieves stiffness, Treats diseases of the wrist, Carpal tunnel syndrome, Cardiac pain, Mental disorders
Talahridaya
Center of the surface

Location: Center of the palm of the hand
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Arms and Hands
Category: Mamsa (Muscle)
Lethal: Kalantara Pranahara (Death within 2 to 4 weeks)
Point # Actions
PC-8
  • Clears heat from the Pericardium and revives consciousness
  • Clears heat from the Heart and calms the spirit
  • Harmonises the Stomach and clears heat from the middle jiao
  • Clears the nutritive level and cools blood
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Stimulates the Lungs (Vata)
Urvi
What is wide

Location: The mid-region of the upper arm
Size: 1 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Arms and Hands
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
PC-2
  • Unbinds the chest, invigorates blood and alleviates pain
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Udakavaha Srota, Fluid movement, Stimulates Ambhu Vaha Srotas, urine retention and swelling and pain in inguinal area.
Ani
The point of a needle

Location: Lower region of the upper leg
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Legs and Feet
Category: Snayu (Ligaments and Tendons)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
BL-10
  • Regulates qi and pacifies wind
  • Benefits the head and sensory orifices
  • Calms the spirit
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
LV-9
  • Adjusts menstruation and regulates the lower jiao
GB-31
  • Eliminates wind
  • Alleviates itching
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
SP-10
  • Invigorates the blood and dispels stasis
  • Cools blood
  • Harmonises menstruation
  • Benefits the skin
ST-33
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Dispels wind-damp
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Vayu, Muscle tension, Controls muscle tone
Gulpha
Ankle joint

Location: Ankle joint
Size: 2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Legs and Feet
Category: Sandhi (Joint)
Lethal: Rujakara (Causing persistent prolonged pain)
Point # Actions
BL-59
  • Benefits the lumbar region and legs
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
GB-39
  • Benefits the sinews and bones
  • Benefits the neck
  • Dispels wind-damp
  • Clears Gall Bladder fire
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Relieves Stiffness, Treatment of leg paralysis and pain (especially in ankle joint)
Indrabasti
Indra arrow

Location: Center of lower leg
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Legs and Feet
Category: Mamsa (Muscle)
Lethal: Kalantara Pranahara (Death within 2 to 4 weeks)
Point # Actions
BL-57
  • Relaxes the sinews, activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Benefits the calf and heel
  • Treats haemorrhoids
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Stimulates Digestive Fire (Jataragni), Small Intestine
Janu
Knee joint

Location: Knee joint
Size: 3 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Legs and Feet
Category: Sandhi (Joint)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
BL-40
  • Benefits the lumbar region and knees
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Cools the blood
  • Clears summer-heat and stops vomiting and diarrhoea
  • Benefits the Bladder
GB-34
  • Benefits the sinews and joints
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Spreads Liver qi and benefits the lateral costal region
  • Clears Liver and Gall Bladder damPC-heat
  • Harmonises shaoyang
ST-35
  • Dispels wind-damp and reduces swelling
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Heart, Liver, Spleen, Treats the lower back and leg pain including the hip joint
Kshipra
Quick to give results

Location: Between big toe and second toe
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Legs and Feet
Category: Snayu (Ligaments and Tendons)
Lethal: Kalantara Pranahara (Death within 2 to 4 weeks)
Point # Actions
LV-2
  • Clears Liver fire
  • Spreads Liver qi
  • Pacifies Liver wind
  • Clears heat and stops bleeding
  • Benefits the lower jiao
LV-3
  • Spreads Liver qi
  • Subdues Liver yang and extinguishes wind
  • Nourishes Liver blood and Liver yin
  • Clears the head and eyes
  • Regulates menstruation
  • Regulates the lower jiao
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Heart, Lungs, Swelling, Redness and pain in eye and toes.
Kurcha
A knot or bundle

Location: Bottom of big toe
Size: 4 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Legs and Feet
Category: Snayu (Ligaments and Tendons)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
LV-3
  • Spreads Liver qi
  • Subdues Liver yang and extinguishes wind
  • Nourishes Liver blood and Liver yin
  • Clears the head and eyes
  • Regulates menstruation
  • Regulates the lower jiao
GB-42
  • Spreads Liver qi
  • Clears Gall Bladder heat
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Vision, High blood pressure, Jaundice, Uterine bleeding
Kurchashira
The head of kurcha

Location: Base of big toe joint
Size: 1 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Legs and Feet
Category: Snayu (Ligaments and Tendons)
Lethal: Rujakara (Causing persistent prolonged pain)
Point # Actions
SP-5
  • Fortifies the Spleen and resolves dampness
  • Benefits the sinews and bones
  • Calms the spirit
ST-42
  • Clears heat from the Stomach channel
  • Harmonises the Stomach fu
  • Calms the spirit
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Muscle Spasm, Leg and back ache, epilepsy.
Lohitaksha
Red-jointed

Location: Lower frontal end of the hip joint
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Legs and Feet
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
LV-11
  • Benefits the uterus
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Fluid movement, Leg Blood supply, Assists circulation and pain in legs.
Talahridaya
Center of the surface

Location: Center of the sole of the foot
Size: 1/2 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Legs and Feet
Category: Mamsa (Muscle)
Lethal: Kalantara Pranahara (Death within 2 to 4 weeks)
Point # Actions
KD-1
  • Descends excess from the head
  • Calms the spirit
  • Revives consciousness and rescues yang
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Stimulates the Kidneys (Vata)
Urvi
What is wide

Location: The mid-region of the upper thigh
Size: 1 anguli
Number: 2
Region: Legs and Feet
Category: Sira (Point on Dhamani)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
BL-37
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Benefits the lumbar spine
ST-32
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Dispels wind-damp
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Udakavaha Srota, Fluid movement, Stimulates Ambhu Vaha Srotas, urine retention and swelling and pain in inguinal area.
Vitapa
What is hot or painful

Location: Perineum
Size: 1 anguli
Number: 2
Swadhisthana Region: Legs and Feet
Category: Snayu (Ligaments and Tendons)
Lethal: Vaikalyakara (Maiming or deformity when injured)
Point # Actions
KD-11
  • Benefits the lower jiao
Indications:
Contradictions:
Actions: Belly muscle tension, Impotence, Semen, Ovum, urine retention, External genital pain, Seminal emission. Affects muscle tone in lower abdomen

Meridians

Go to top
Meridians
Meridian Route Body Organ Zodiac Sign Homeopathy Description
Lung Meridian
3am - 5am
Starts At: Neat armpit, between second and third ribs
Runs Via: Upper and lower arms
Ends At: Inside of thumb at the root of the nail
Lungs Gemini Carbo Vegetabilis No description
Large Intestine Meridian
5am - 7am
Starts At: Base of index fingernails
Runs Via: Up inner side of the arms
Ends At: Sides of the nostrils
Large Intestine Aquarius Aluminium Metallicum No description
Heart Meridian
11am - 1pm (13:00)
Starts At: Base of the armpit
Runs Via: Down inner side of arm
Ends At: Base of the little fingernail
Heart Leo Aurum Metallicum No description
Small Intestine Meridian
1pm - 3pm (15:00)
Starts At: Base of the little fingernail
Runs Via: Up the arm and side of face
Ends At: Just in front of each ear
Small Intestine Virgo Plumbum Metallicum No description
Pericardium Meridian
7pm - 9pm (21:00)
Starts At: The chest muscle
Runs Via: Down the arms
Ends At: Base of the middle fingernail
Pericardium Aries Staphisagria No description
Triple Warmer Meridian
9pm - 11pm (23:00)
Starts At: Ring finger, on the little finger side
Runs Via: Up the arm to the head
Ends At: Near the eye, under the eyebrow
Triple Warmer Pisces Silica No description
Kidney Meridian
5pm - 7pm (19:00)
Starts At: Soles of feet
Runs Via: Up the inside leg, through the center of the body
Ends At: Below the collar bone between the clavicle and first rib
Kidney Libra Phosphorus No description
Bladder Meridian
3pm - 5pm (17:00)
Starts At: The inside corner of the eye
Runs Via: Over the skull, down the spinal column
Ends At: Base of the little toenail
Bladder Scorpio Kalium Carbonicum No description
Liver Meridian
1am - 3am
Starts At: Base of the nail of the big toe
Runs Via: Up the inside of the leg
Ends At: Near the nipple
Liver Sagittarius Stannum Metallicum No description
Gallbladder Meridian
11pm - 1am
Starts At: Outer corner of the eye
Runs Via: Several points on the head
Ends At: The second joint of the fourth toe
Gall Bladder Capricorn Colocynth No description
Spleen Meridian
9am - 11am
Starts At: The root of the nail of the big toe
Runs Via: Up the inside of the legs and torso
Ends At: Below the armpit
Spleen Taurus Thuja No description
Stomach Meridian
7am - 9am
Starts At: Just under the eye
Runs Via: Down the body and legs
Ends At: Root of the second toenail
Stomach Cancer Nux vomica No description
Governing Vessel
Starts At: In the pelvic cavity between the tip of the coccyx and anus
Runs Via: Middle of spinal column, over the skull
Ends At: Two front teeth, between the upper lip and gums
Center of Back. Sea of Yang.
Conception Vessel
Starts At: Pelvic cavity, in the center of the perineum
Runs Via: Middleline of the abdomen, through the chest and throat to the mandible
Ends At: Two front teeth, between the lower lip and gums
Center of Torso. Sea of Yin.

Acupuncture Point Categories

Go to top

24 Meridians (12*2) are actually Sushrut's 24 Dhamanis while AcupuncturePoints on meridians are Siras of Sushrut.
700 siras = Lung Meridian (22 points {11+11 for Right and Left}) + .... + Governor channel (only left: 28 points) + Conception channel (only left 24 points) + Extra siras/points (30)
All Solid organ channels always have Ether as their first element point. All Hollow organ channels have Air as their first element point. BUT each channel follws the Wheel of Support.


Buddhist triangle Special combination of Anxiety/Depression
Command According to 16th century Ming Dynasty physician Gao Wu, these points can be used to treat any kind of disorder in these regions, whether deficient, excess, hot, cold, chronic or acute. These are also called "4 command points", the 2 other points are added later.
Confluent/Coupled The extraordinary vessels run "behind" the 12 main meridians. They interconnect with the 12 meridians and correspondingly allow for broad and deep effects within the body. 6 of the 8 extraordinary vessels has a master and coupled point on a pair of the main meridians. The Governing Vessel and the Conception Vessel, however, have their own points.
Confluent/Master The extraordinary vessels run "behind" the 12 main meridians. They interconnect with the 12 meridians and correspondingly allow for broad and deep effects within the body. 6 of the 8 extraordinary vessels has a master and coupled point on a pair of the main meridians. The Governing Vessel and the Conception Vessel, however, have their own points.
Entry Pending
Exit Pending
Five Element (Child) It is responsible for taking the food from parent as per the Wheel of Support.
Five Element (Mother) It is responsible for feeding the child as per the Wheel of Support.
Five Shu (He-sea) Sea points are related to Flowering and at which the Qi enters Inwards. At the Sea points the Qi of the channel is vast and deep; it collects, comes together and joins the general circulation of the body, like a large river flowing into the sea. Compared to the Well points, the Sea points are much less dynamic and their effect is less quick and dramatic. Sea point are used for all stomach and intestinal diseases (i.e with digestive functions). This applies mostly to Yang channels but also to Yin ones.
Five Shu (Jing-river) River points are related to Manifestation and at which the Qi Flows. Defensive Qi gathers at the River points. At the River points the Qi of the channel is much bigger, wider and also deeper. The Qi flows like a large current after coming a long distance from its source; Qi is able to flow down a channel. At the River points, exterior pathogenic factors are deviated towards joints, bones and sinews. Jing-river points have to do with many respiratory problems as well as fever and chills, coughs and dyspnoea, diseases that take place in the bones and sinews and finally health problems that affect the vocal cords and serve to alter a persons way of speaking. This applies more to Yin than Yang channels.
Five Shu (Jing-well) Well points are related to Aggravation and at which the Qi Emanates. The Well is the point of departure of Qi. At this point the channel is the most superficial and thinnest and the energy changes polarity from Yin to Yang or vice versa. The energy is at its most unstable state here, so that it can be easily and readily influenced and changed. The energy at these points has an outward movement, the energy of the channel tends to go outwards in a centrifugal movement at these points. The Well points are used in acute conditions as the Well points tend to be used to eliminate pathogenic factors quickly in acute conditions. The Well points are used for irritability, mental restlessness and anxiety.
Five Shu (Shu-stream) Stream points are related to Displacement and at which the Qi Pours. At the Stream point the Qi of the channel pours through, it swirls and the flow starts to be bigger and slightly deeper within the channel. Here the flow of Qi is rapid and large enough to carry other things with it hence its name transporting. At the Spring points, on the one hand, exterior pathogenic factors can be transported into the interior and penetrate deeper in the channels. Stream points are used for Painful Obstruction Syndrome (Bi Syndrome) especially from dampness. This applies to Yang channels more then Yin channels. Shu-stream points have to do with pain and discomfort in the tendons and joints as well as intermittent kinds of diseases and a feeling of heaviness in the body as if it is being pulled down.
Five Shu (Ying-spring) Spring points are related to Overflow and at which the Qi Glides. At the Spring point the Qi of the channel is very powerful and full of potential energy ready to manifest, like the swirling movement of water in a mountain spring. Qi is able to effectively glide or slide down the channel in question. The Spring points have a particularly strong action and are generally used to eliminate pathogenic factor whether they are interior or exterior and in particular to clear Heat. The Spring points are used sparingly. The Spring points of the feet are more powerful then the Spring points of the hands. Spring points are used for febrile diseases or to clear Heat. Virtually all Spring points clear heat in their respective channels.
Four Seas Pending
Ghost The most basic of the ways in which possession could be carried out within Chinese medicine. Used in treatment for possession by ghosts.
Hui Meeting/Gathering Pending
Lower He Sea These points are located on the Yang meridians and are used to treat their respective yang/hollow organs. These are places where the Qi in the meridians is most vigorous.
Luo/Bridge There are points which connect between the hollow and solid organ channels and allow Prana to travel between one channel and the next in line.
Ma Danyang/12 Star Points Points as per the poem of Ma Danyang (originally named Ma Yu) Daoist; which he originally wrote in 1329.
Mu/Front Pending
Shu/Back Pending
Window of Sky The basic functions of the points are to improve the flow of energy between the head and the rest of the body.
Xi/Cleft These are points where Prana tends to be retained in the channel and forms a type of base. In other words, points are the position on the channel where both the blood as well as the qi come together and once connected, make their way further into the human body.
Yuan/Base Source points (Mula Marmas) are points where Prana tends to be retained in the channel and forms a type of base. This may be needed as when a blockage of Prana occurs along a channel (as in the case of chronic dis-ease). The Base point will then release energy from the organ into the channel in order to facilitate healing. The Base point of a channel not only reflects the energy of the related organ but is also a minor doshic representative along the channel. That is to say that in the case of the Lung, the base point of the Lung channel reflects Vata in that channel. Additionally, the Base points reflect the condition of their related organs. For instance an imbalance in the Large Intestine may refer tenderness at Large Intestine 4, at the web between thumb and index finger on the outside of the hand.

Srota Points
Srota Points
Pranavaha (LifeForce channel) PC-8, M-HN-3
Annavaha (Food channel) TH-9, BL-57
Ambuvaha (Water Metabolism channel) LI-14, PC-2, BL-40, CV-3
Rasavaha (Plasma channel) TH-9
Raktavaha (Blood channel) LI-18, ST-8, CV-17
Mamsavaha (Muscle channel) SP-3
Medavaha (Fat channel) CV-2
Asthivaha (Bone channel) ST-8
Majjavaha (Nervous or Marrow channel) GV-20, GV-25, GV-27
Shukravaha (Reproductive fluid channel) GB-29, CV-2
Purishavaha (Faecal channel) GV-15, GV-16, CV-2
Mutravaha (Urinary channel) BL-30, BL-36, GB-29
Svedavaha (Sweat channel) LV-2, LV-3
Artavavaha (Menstruation channel) BL-30, BL-36, GB-29, SP-6
Stanyavaha (Lactation channel) SP-6, CV-17
Manovaha (Mental channel) HE-7, GV-20
SubDosha Points
Subdosha Points
Prana/Lead Breath (Vaata) PC-8
Udana/Upward Breath (Vaata) PC-6
Samana/Equalizing Breath (Vaata) SI-5
Vyana/Pervading Breath (Vaata) CV-17
Apana/Downward Breath (Vaata) BL-35, SP-6, CV-2
Sadhaka/Helper (Pitta) PC-7, CV-17
Alochaka/Seer (Pitta) LV-3
Pachaka/Cooker (Pitta) SI-5, CV-8
Ranjaka/Colorer (Pitta) LV-2
Bhrajaka/Shiner (Pitta) LU-7
Tarpaka/Satisfier (Kapha) PC-3
Avalambaka/Supporter (Kapha) LU-5, ST-36
Kledaka/Wetter (Kapha) ST-36, CV-12
Bodhaka/Perceiver (Kapha) LU-5
Shleshaka/Embracer (Kapha) TH-2, KD-10
Five Shu Points
Meridian Jing-well Ying-spring Shu-stream Jing-river He-sea
Lung Meridian LU-11 LU-10 LU-9 LU-8 LU-5
Large Intestine Meridian LI-1 LI-2 LI-3 LI-5 LI-11
Heart Meridian HE-9 HE-8 HE-7 HE-4 HE-3
Small Intestine Meridian SI-1 SI-2 SI-3 SI-5 SI-8
Pericardium Meridian PC-9 PC-8 PC-7 PC-5 PC-3
Triple Warmer Meridian TH-1 TH-2 TH-3 TH-6 TH-10
Kidney Meridian KD-1 KD-2 KD-3 KD-7 KD-10
Bladder Meridian BL-67 BL-66 BL-65 BL-60 BL-40
Liver Meridian LV-1 LV-2 LV-3 LV-4 LV-8
Gallbladder Meridian GB-44 GB-43 GB-41 GB-38 GB-34
Spleen Meridian SP-1 SP-2 SP-3 SP-5 SP-9
Stomach Meridian ST-45 ST-44 ST-43 ST-41 ST-36
Governing Vessel
Conception Vessel
Five Element Points
Meridian Mother Child
Lung Meridian LU-9 LU-5
Large Intestine Meridian LI-11 LI-2
Heart Meridian HE-9 HE-7
Small Intestine Meridian SI-3 SI-8
Pericardium Meridian PC-9 PC-7
Triple Warmer Meridian TH-3 TH-10
Kidney Meridian KD-7 KD-1
Bladder Meridian BL-67 BL-65
Liver Meridian LV-8 LV-2
Gallbladder Meridian GB-43 GB-38
Spleen Meridian SP-2 SP-5
Stomach Meridian ST-41 ST-45
Governing Vessel
Conception Vessel
Yuan/Base Points
Meridian Point
Lung Meridian LU-9
Large Intestine Meridian LI-4
Heart Meridian HE-7
Small Intestine Meridian SI-4
Pericardium Meridian PC-7
Triple Warmer Meridian TH-4
Kidney Meridian KD-3
Bladder Meridian BL-64
Liver Meridian LV-3
Gallbladder Meridian GB-40
Spleen Meridian SP-3
Stomach Meridian ST-42
Governing Vessel
Conception Vessel
Luo/Bridge Points
Meridian Point
Lung Meridian LU-7
Large Intestine Meridian LI-6
Heart Meridian HE-5
Small Intestine Meridian SI-7
Pericardium Meridian PC-6
Triple Warmer Meridian TH-5
Kidney Meridian KD-4
Bladder Meridian BL-58
Liver Meridian LV-5
Gallbladder Meridian GB-37
Spleen Meridian SP-4, SP-21
Stomach Meridian ST-40
Governing Vessel GV-1
Conception Vessel CV-15

Command Points
Organ Gathering
Head & Posterior Neck LU-7
Face & Mouth LI-4
Heart, Chest & Epigastrium PC-6
Lumbar Region BL-40
Abdomen ST-36
Fainting & Collapse GV-26

Four Seas
Organ Sea
Sea of Blood BL-11, ST-37, ST-39
Sea of Qi ST-9, GV-14, GV-15, CV-17
Sea of Water & Grain ST-30, ST-36
Sea of Marrow GV-16, GV-20

Buddhist Triangle Points
Point
LU-9
HE-7
PC-6
Window of Sky Points
Point Function
LU-3 Tian Fu (Mansion of Heaven)
LI-18 Fu Tu (Supporting Prominence)
SI-16 Tian Chuang (Heavenly Window)
SI-17 Tian Rong (Heavenly Manifestation)
PC-1 Tian Chi (Pool of Heaven)
TH-16 Tian You (Window of Heaven)
BL-10 Tian Zhu (Heavens Pillar)
ST-9 Ren Ying (Humanities Welcome)
GV-16 Feng Fu (Wind Palace)
CV-22 Tian Tu (Heavenly Crevice)

Lower He Sea
Organ Lower He Sea
Triple Heater organ BL-39
Bladder organ BL-40
Gallbladder organ GB-34
Stomach organ ST-36
Large Intestine organ ST-37
Small Intestine organ ST-39
MuShu FrontBack Points
Organ Mu/Front Shu/Back
Lung organ LU-1 BL-13
Pericardium organ CV-17 BL-14
Heart organ CV-14 BL-15
Governing Vessel BL-16
Diaphragm organ BL-17
Liver organ LV-14 BL-18
Gallbladder organ GB-24 BL-19
Spleen organ LV-13 BL-20
Stomach organ CV-12 BL-21
Triple Heater organ CV-5 BL-22
Kidney organ GB-25 BL-23
Sea of Qi BL-24
Large Intestine organ ST-25 BL-25
Gate of Source BL-26
Small Intestine organ CV-4 BL-27
Bladder organ CV-3 BL-28
Center Back Muscles BL-29
White Ring BL-30
Vital Region BL-43
Entry/Exit Points
Meridian Entry Exit
Lung Meridian LU-1 LU-7
Large Intestine Meridian LI-4 LI-20
Heart Meridian HE-1 HE-9
Small Intestine Meridian SI-1 SI-19
Pericardium Meridian PC-1 PC-8
Triple Warmer Meridian TH-1 TH-22
Kidney Meridian KD-1 KD-22
Bladder Meridian BL-1 BL-67
Liver Meridian LV-1 LV-14
Gallbladder Meridian GB-1 GB-41
Spleen Meridian SP-1 SP-21
Stomach Meridian ST-1 ST-42
Governing Vessel
Conception Vessel
Master/Coupled Points
Vessel Master Coupled
Conception Vessel LU-7 KD-6
Yin Qiao Vessel KD-6 LU-7
Governing Vessel SI-3 BL-62
Yang Qiao Vessel BL-62 SI-3
Yin Wei Vessel PC-6 SP-4
Thrusting Vessel SP-4 PC-6
Yang Wei Vessel TH-5 GB-41
Belt Vessel GB-41 TH-5

Hui Meeting/Gathering Points
Organ Gathering
Vessels LU-9
Bones BL-11
Blood BL-17
Yin Organs LV-13
Sinews GB-34
Marrow GB-39
Yang Organs CV-12
Qi CV-17
Ghost Points
Point Function
LU-11 Ghost Faith
LI-11 Ghost Leg
PC-7 Ghost Heart
PC-8 Ghost Cave
BL-62 Ghost Path
SP-1 Ghost Fortress
ST-6 Ghost Bed
GV-16 Ghost Pillow
GV-23 Ghost Hall
GV-26 Ghost Place
CV-1 Ghost Store
CV-24 Ghost Market
Ma Danyang/12 Star Points
Point
LU-7, LI-4, LI-11, HE-5, BL-40, BL-57, BL-60, LV-3, GB-30, GB-34, ST-36, ST-44

Xi/Cleft Points
Meridian Points
Lung Meridian LU-6
Large Intestine Meridian LI-7
Heart Meridian HE-6
Small Intestine Meridian SI-6
Pericardium Meridian PC-4
Triple Warmer Meridian TH-7
Kidney Meridian KD-5, KD-8, KD-9
Bladder Meridian BL-59, BL-63
Liver Meridian LV-6
Gallbladder Meridian GB-35, GB-36
Spleen Meridian SP-8
Stomach Meridian ST-34
Governing Vessel
Conception Vessel


Acupuncture Points

Go to top
Point # Srota/Dosha/Marma Category/Function Location Indications Actions Description Cautions
CV-1
Huiyin
(Meeting of Yin)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
Muladhara/Root
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
Guda

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Ghost

Function:
Ghost Store
At the perineum, midway between the anus and the scrotum in men, and the anus and the posterior labial commissure in women.

Landmark: In males the scrotum may need to be lifted away from the point.
  • Difficult urination and defecation, enuresis, seminal emission, impotence, genital diseases, sweating of the genitals, pain of the head of the penis, cold sensation of the head of the penis, swelling of the testicles, swelling and pain of the vagina, prolapse of the rectum, haemorrhoids, pain of the anus and urethra, sensation of heat in the urethra, itching and pain of the perineum, shan disorder.
  • Amenorrhoea, irregular menstruation, uterine prolapse.
  • Coma, suffocation by water (drowning), mania-depression.
  • Pain of the skin of the abdomen, itching of the skin of the abdomen.
  • Regulates the anterior and posterior yin
  • Drains damp heat
  • Calms the spirit
  • Promotes resuscitation and revives from drowning
Pregnancy
According to the Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, this point is contraindicated to needling.
CV-2
Qugu
(Curved Bone)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
Fat channel,
Reproductive fluid channel,
Faecal channel

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
Apana (Vaata)

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the lower abdomen, at the superior border of the pubic symphysis, 5 cun below the umbilicus.
  • Dribbling and hesitant flow of urine, difficult urination, retention of urine due to foetal pressure, enuresis, the five types of painful urinary dysfunction.
  • Fullness, distention and pain of the lower abdomen, acute lower abdominal pain, painful shan disorder.
  • Impotence, seminal emission, dampness and itching of the scrotum, contraction of the penis, dryness and pain of the genitals.
  • Red and white leucorrhoea, irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhoea.
  • Deficiency and exhaustion of the five zang, deficiency and weariness with extreme cold.
  • Benefits urination
  • Regulates the lower jiao
  • Warms and invigorates the Kidneys
deep insertion will penetrate a full bladder which should therefore be emptied before treatment
CV-3
Zhongji
(Middle Pole)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
Water Metabolism channel

Part of Marma:
Basti

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Mu/Front

Function:
Bladder organ
On the midline of the lower abdomen, 4 cun inferior to the umbilicus and 1 cun superior to the pubic symphysis.
  • Severe pain of the lower abdomen with retention of urine (in pregnancy), frequent urination, dark urination, urethral pain, the five types of painful urinary dysfunction, oedema.
  • Genital itching with heat sensation, pain of the genitals, red and white leucorrhoea, seminal emission, seminal emission with dreams.
  • Pain and swelling of the child gate (cervix), infertility, irregular menstruation, amenorrhoea, menorrhagia, uterine prolapse, abdominal (zheng jia) masses, retention of the placenta., retention of lochia, persistent flow of lochia.
  • Masses below the umbilicus, severe twisting pain below the umbilicus, the seven kinds of shan disorder, cold sensation of the lower abdomen, heat sensation of the abdomen, sudden severe pain of the lower abdomen and back.
  • Accumulation of cold qi rising to invade the Heart, running piglet qi rising to the Heart causing inability to breathe.
  • Lumbar pain, deficiency of yang qi, lower origin (yuan) deficient, loss of consciousness, hunger with inability to eat.
  • Benefits the Bladder, regulates qi transformation and drains damPC-heat
  • Drains dampness and treats leucorrhoea
  • Benefits the uterus and regulates menstruation
  • Dispels stagnation and benefits the lower jiao
  • Fortifies the Kidneys
Deep insertion will penetrate a full bladder which should therefore be emptied before treatment
CV-4
Guanyuan
(Gate of Origin)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
Basti

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Mu/Front

Function:
Small Intestine organ
On the midline of the lower abdomen, 3 cun inferior to the umbilicus and 2 cun superior to the pubic symphysis
  • Kidney deficiency, Kidney taxation, weakness of the lumbar region and legs, pain of the lumbar region and the bones and joints of the legs in the middleaged and elderly, aversion to cold in the back, withered ears, gradual darkening of the face, fear, fright, fear leading to deficiency consumption, deeprooted bone ulcers due to fear, frequent urination, enuresis, seminal emission, white turbidity, impotence.
  • Infertility, infertility with cold sensation in the vagina, amenorrhoea, bleeding during pregnancy, persistent flow of lochia, post-partum abdominal pain, red and white leucorrhoea.
  • Taxation heat, deficiency consumption with cough, tidal fever with coughing of blood, dyspnoea with inability to lie down, Kidney deficiency dyspnoea, insomnia, dizziness, wind dizziness, headache, wasting and thirsting disorder.
  • Lethargy and lack of strength, emaciation of the four limbs despite much eating, weariness of the four limbs, weakness of Spleen qi, undigested food (in the stool), diarrhoea, dysenteric disorder, incontinence of the stool in the elderly, belching, vomiting of phlegm.
  • Retention of urine due to foetal pressure, retention of urine, dark urine, stone painful urinary dysfunction, the five types of painful urinary dysfunction, blood in the urine, burning pain on urination, oedema that leads to pain of the lateral costal region.
  • Cold qi entering the lower abdomen giving rise to pain, cold accumulation with deficiency, running piglet qi rising to the Heart, fullness of the lower abdomen, back pain and twisting pain below the umbilicus that gradually radiates to the genitals, sudden painful shan disorder, intense heat in the hypogastrium.
  • Sudden turmoil disorder, windstroke, heaviness of the body like a mountain, tremor of the hands.
  • Fortifies the original qi and benefits essence
  • Tonifies and nourishes the Kidneys
  • Warms and fortifies the Spleen
  • Benefits the uterus and assists conception
  • Regulates the lower jiao and benefits the Bladder
  • Regulates Small Intestine qi
  • Restores collapse
Deep insertion may penetrate a full bladder which should therefore be emptied before treatment
CV-5
Shimen
(Stone Gate)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
Basti

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Mu/Front

Function:
Triple Heater organ
On the midline of the lower abdomen, 2 cun inferior to the umbilicus and 3 cun superior to the pubic symphysis.
  • Difficult urination, difficult urination due to injury by cold, retention of urine, qi painful urinary dysfunction, blood painful urinary dysfunction, dark urine, oedema.
  • Diarrhoea, undigested food (in the stool), dysenteric disorder, vomiting blood with inability to eat.
  • Twisting pain of the lower abdomen, shan disorder with severe periumbilical pain, lower abdominal distention, retraction of the testicles, genital itching, swelling of the penis giving rise to pain of the lower abdomen and lumbar region, running piglet qi attacking the Heart.
  • Persistent flow of lochia, abdominal masses, uterine bleeding, stone-like hardness of the lower abdomen, diseases of the breast, leucorrhoea.
  • Deficiency-taxation, lower origin (yuan) deficient and cold.
  • Moves and benefits the water passages
  • Regulates qi and alleviates pain
  • Regulates the uterus
Several Classical texts, this point is contraindicated to needling and moxibustion during pregnancy.
Deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
CV-6
Qihai
(Sea of Qi)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
Swadhisthana/Sacral
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
Basti

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the lower abdomen, 1.5 cun inferior to the umbilicus and 3.5 cun superior to the pubic symphysis.
  • Zang deficiency with qi exhaustion, original qi deficiency, sudden collapse of yang, slow and minute pulse, yin deficiency with sudden collapse of yang, loss of consciousness from windstroke, all kinds of chronic qi disease that do not respond to treatment, emaciation of the muscles and body, feebleness and weakness of the muscles, failure of the fontanelle to close in babies, upward attack of the qi of the five zang.
  • Impotence, seminal emission, prolapse of the uterus, prolapse of the rectum.
  • Deficiency and cold of the lower jiao, inversion counterflow of the four limbs, cold illness with dark face, diarrhoea, dysenteric disorder, wlute and turbid urine, dark urine, hesitant urination, childhood enuresis.
  • Uterine bleeding, persistent flow of lochia, postpartum bleeding, irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhoea, red and white leucorrhoea, infertility.
  • The seven kinds of shan disorder, twisting pain of the umbilicus, abdominal (zheng jia) masses, abdominal distention, pain and cold sensation below the umbilicus, retraction of the testicles.
  • Upward staring eyes, constipation, sudden pain of the Heart, dyspnoea, lumbar sprain.
  • Fosters original qi
  • Tonifies qi
  • Tonifies the Kidneys and fortifies yang
  • Rescues collapse of yang
  • Regulates qi and harmonises blood
Deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
CV-7
Yinjiao
(Yin Intersection)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the lower abdomen, 1 cun inferior to the umbilicus and 4 cun superior to the pubic symphysis.
  • Uterine bleeding, irregular menstruation, amenorrhoea, infertility, leucorrhoea, persistent flow of lochia, diseases of the breast.
  • Hardness and pain of the abdomen radiating to the genitals, retraction of the testicles, painful shan disorder, cold shan disorder, sweating of the genitals, damp itching of the genitals, pain of the hypogastrium, heat sensation below the umbilicus, pain and cold around the umbilicus.
  • Retention of urine and faeces, inability to urinate, dark urine, oedema, sudden turmoil disorder, borborygmus.
  • Pain of the lumbar spine, contraction of the lumbar spine and knees, failure of the fontanelle to close.
  • Nosebleed, running piglet qi, vomiting blood, pain of the chest and lateral costal region.
  • Regulates menstruation
  • Benefits the lower abdomen and genital region
Deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
CV-8
Shenque
(Spirit Gateway)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
Manipura/Solar Plexus
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
Nabhi

Subdosha:
Pachaka (Pitta)

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
In the centre of the umbilicus.
  • Loss of consciousness from windstroke, collapse of yang qi, loss of consciousness.
  • Deficiency cold of the abdomen, incessant diarrhoea, borborygmus, diarrhoea in the elderly or in deficient people, infantile diarrhoea following breast-feeding, prolapse of the rectum, sudden turmoil disorder, pain around the umbilicus, oedema and drum distention.
  • Abdominal distention and retention of urine in postpartum women, infertility from cold in the blood.
  • Qi painful urinary dysfunction, wind epilepsy, opisthotonos.
  • Warms the yang and rescues collapse
  • Warms and harmonises the intestines
CV-9
Shuifen
(Water Separation)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the abdomen, 1 cun above the umbilicus and 7 cun below the sternocostal angle.
  • Water diseases, oedema.
  • Deficiency and distention of the intestines and Stomach, borborygmus, no pleasure in eating, acid regurgitation, vomiting after eating, sudden turmoil disorder with cramps, abdomen swollen and hard like a drum, periumbilical pain rushing up to the chest and Heart causing difficulty in breathing.
  • Nosebleed, failure of the fontanelle to close, tetany, contracted sinews, rigidity of the lumbar spine.
  • Regulates the water passages and treats oedema
  • Harmonises the intestines and dispels accumulation
This point is contraindicated to needling in cases of water illness, and plentiful moxibustion should rather be used. Moxibustion is contraindicated in pregnancy.
In thin patients deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
CV-10
Xiawan
(Lower Cavity)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the abdomen, 2 cun above the umbilicus and 6 cun below the sternocostal angle.
  • Abdominal fullness, abdominal hardness, epigastric pain, nausea and vomiting after eating, focal distention, undigested food (in the stool), no pleasure in eating, cold qi of the six fu.
  • Thready pulse lacking in force, emaciation, dark urine.
  • Harmonises the Stomach and regulates qi
  • Dispels food stagnation
Pregnancy
In thin patients deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
CV-11
Jianli
(Strengthen the Interior)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the abdomen, 3 cun above the umbilicus and 5 cun below the sternocostal angle.
  • Abdominal distention, pain of the intestines, vomiting, no pleasure in eating, sudden turmoil disorder, Heart pain, oedema of the body.
  • Harmonises the middle jiao and regulates qi
In thin patients deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity
CV-12
Zhongwan
(Middle Cavity)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
Kledaka (Kapha)

Category:
Mu/Front,
Hui Meeting/Gathering

Function:
Stomach organ,
Yang Organs
On the midline of the abdomen, 4 cun above the umbilicus and midway between the umbilicus and the sternocostal angle.
  • All diseases of the Stomach and Spleen, interior injury to the Stomach and Spleen, epigastric pain and fullness, difficult ingestion, eats little but is easily full, nausea, Stomach reflux, vomiting, vomiting blood, abdominal distention, severe pain of the abdomen, sudden abdominal fullness, focal distention and fullness, pain of the Spleen, hardness and pain of the lateral costal region.
  • Injury by worry, anxiety and overthinking, injury by the seven emotions leading to epigastric pain.
  • Diarrhoea, undigested food (in the stool), red and white dysenteric disorder, difficulty in defecation, heat in the Small Intestine, dark urine, sudden turmoil disorder.
  • Deficiency-taxation, sallow complexion, post-partum blood dizziness.
  • Heart pain, chronic and acute childhood fright wind, loss of consciousness, mania-depression, epilepsy, tongue thrusting.
  • Cold body, scorched foul odour in the nose, running piglet qi, warm malaria, dyspnoea.
  • Harmonises the middle jiao and descends rebellion
  • Tonifies the Stomach and fortifies the Spleen
  • Regulates qi and alleviates pain
In thin patients deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
CV-13
Shangwan
(Upper Cavity)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the abdomen, 5 cun above the umbilicus and 3 cun below the sternocostal angle.
  • Nausea, vomiting, deficiency-taxation vomiting of blood, difficult ingestion, Stomach reflux, sudden turmoil disorder, abdominal pain, abdominal distention and fullness, abdominal (ji ju) masses, pain of the Spleen, undigested food (in the stool), borborygrnus.
  • Sudden Heart pain, sensation of heat and agitation in the Heart, fright palpitations.
  • Heat in the body with absence of sweating, febrile disease, jaundice.
  • Wind epilepsy, much phlegm, running piglet qi, visual dizziness.
  • Harmonises the Stomach and regulates qi
  • Descends rebellion and alleviates vomiting
  • Regulates the Heart
In thin patients deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
CV-14
Juque
(Great Gateway)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Mu/Front

Function:
Heart organ
On the midline of the abdomen, 6 cun above the umbilicus and 2 cun below the sternocostal angle.

Landmark: In some patients the xiphoid process may extend to this point
  • Heart pain, sudden Heart pain, Heart pain due to cold, injury by cold leading to agitation of the Heart, pain of the chest radiating to the back, chest pain radiating to the lateral costal region, accumulation of phlegm in the chest, rebellious qi, cough, fullness of the chest with shortness of breath, spitting blood.
  • Mania-disorder, mania-depression, aversion to fire, tendency to curse and scold others, ranting and raving, anger, disorientation, loss of consciousness, epilepsy with vomiting of foam, fright palpitations, poor memory, agitation and heat.
  • Sudden turmoil disorder, abdominal distention, sudden abdominal pain, focal distention, oesophageal constriction, nausea, vomiting, Stomach reflux, acid regurgitation, obstruction of the diaphragm, jaundice, acute jaundice, shan disorder, distention and fullness of the lower abdomen, pain due to roundworms.
  • Mutual overacting of the five phases, diminished qi, febrile disease, clonic spasm.
  • Regulates the Heart and alleviates pain
  • Descends Lung qi and unbinds the chest
  • Transforms phlegm and calms the spirit
  • Harmonises the Stomach and descends rebel1 ion
Deep insertion, especially in thin subjects, may damage the left lobe of the liver or the heart if either is enlarged.
Oblique superior insertion towards the heart is contraindicated in all cases.
CV-15
Jiuwei
(Turtledove Tail)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Luo/Bridge

Function:
NA
On the midline of the abdomen, 7 cun above the umbilicus and 1 cun below the sternocostal angle.

Landmark: i. Many sources locate this point below the xiphoid process. In practice however, the xiphoid process varies considerably in length, and this point may lie on the xiphoid process itself.
  • The five types of epilepsy, mania, mad walking, mad singing, aversion to the sound of people talking, fright palpitations.
  • Oppressive sensation in the Heart, chest pain, excessive sighing, pain radiating from the Heart to the back.
  • Pain of the skin of the abdomen, itching of the skin of the abdomen.
  • Wheezing, dyspnoea, fullness of the chest, cough, coughing blood, diminished qi, rattling sound in the throat, throat painful obstruction, swelling of the throat.
  • Difficult ingestion, Stomach reflux, prolapse of the rectum, febrile disease, one-sided headache extending to the outer canthus, excessive sexual activity leading to exhaustion in youths.
  • Regulates the Heart and calms the spirit
  • Descends Lung qi and unbinds the chest
1. deep insertion, especially in thin subjects, may damage the left lobe of the liver or the heart if either is enlarged.
2. oblique superior insertion towards the heart is contraindicated in all cases.
CV-16
Zhongting
(Central Courtyard)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the sternum at the sternocostal angle.

Landmark: This point is level with the fifth intercostal space at the mamillary line.
  • Fullness of the chest and lateral costal region, oesophageal constriction, difficult ingestion, vomiting after eating, vomiting of breast milk in infants, cold and pain of the umbilicus.
  • Unbinds the chest
  • Regulates the Stomach and descends rebellion
CV-17
Shanzhong
(Chest Centre)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
Anahata/Heart
Srotas:
Blood channel,
Lactation channel

Part of Marma:
Hridaya

Subdosha:
Vyana (Vaata),
Sadhaka (Pitta)

Category:
Mu/Front,
Hui Meeting/Gathering,
Four Seas

Function:
Pericardium organ,
Qi,
Sea of Qi
On the midline of the sternum, in a depression level with the junction of the fourth intercostal space and the sternum.

Landmark: 1. First locate the costal cartilage of the second rib which is level with the sternal angle, then locate the second intercostal space below it and count down to the fourth space.
2. This point can be located directly between the nipples in men.
  • Shortness of breath with rebellious qi, inability to speak, dyspnoea, wheezing, rattling sound in the throat, cough, asthma, fullness and oppression of the chest and diaphragm, obstruction of the chest, pain of the chest and Heart, coughing blood, chest painful obstruction, Lung abscess with purulent coughing.
  • Difficult ingestion, acid regurgitation, oesophageal constriction, vomiting of foamy (watery) saliva.
  • Insufficient lactation, breast abscess, distention and pain of the breast.
  • Goitre, wind painful obstruction, loss of consciousness.
  • Regulates qi and unbinds the chest
  • Descends rebellion of the Lung and Stomach
  • Benefits gathering qi
  • Benefits the breasts and promotes lactation
According to several classical texts, this point is contraindicated to needling.
CV-18
Yutang
(Jade Hall)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the sternum, level with the junction of the third intercostal space and the sternum.

Landmark: First locate the costal cartilage of the second rib which is level with the sternal angle, then locate the second intercostal space below it and count down to the third space.
  • Pain of the chest and sternum, agitation with cough, uprising qi, fullness of the chest with difficulty in breathing, wheezing and dyspnoea, cold phlegm.
  • Vomiting, difficult ingestion.
  • Throat painful obstruction, swelling of the throat, swelling and pain of the breasts, pain of the lateral costal region.
  • Unbinds the chest
  • Regulates and descends qi
CV-19
Zigong
(Purple Palace)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the sternum, level with the junction of the second intercostal space and the sternum.

Landmark: Locate the costal cartilage of the second rib which is level with the sternal angle, then locate the second intercostal space below it.
  • Pain of the chest, pain of the sternum, cough, coughing blood, saliva like white glue.
  • Vomiting with uprising qi, difficult ingestion, agitation, painful obstruction, bone pain.
  • Unbinds the chest
  • Regulates and descends qi
CV-20
Huagai
(Magnificent Canopy)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the sternum, level with the junction of the first intercostal space and the sternum.

Landmark: First locate the costal cartilage of the second rib which is level with the sternal angle, then locate the first intercostal space above it.
  • Dyspnoea, wheezing, asthma, cough, rebellious qi, dyspnoea with inability to speak, pain and fullness of the chest and lateral costal region.
  • Difficult ingestion.
  • Unbinds the chest
  • Regulates and descends qi
CV-21
Xuanji
(Jade Pivot)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the manubrium of the sternum, midway between Huagai CV-20 and Tiantu CV-22.
  • Accumulation in the Stomach, difficult ingestion.
  • Pain and fullness of the chest and lateral costal region, cough, rebellious qi, wheezing, dyspnoea with inability to speak.
  • Rattling sound in the throat, throat painful obstruction.
  • Descends Stomach qi and dispels food accumulation
  • Unbinds the chest and descends Lung qi
  • Benefits the throat
CV-22
Tiantu
(Heavenly Prominence)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Window of Sky

Function:
Tian Tu (Heavenly Crevice)
On the midline, in the centre of the suprasternal fossa, 0.5 cun superior to the suprasternal notch
  • Obstruction in the chest, fullness of the chest, obstruction of qi with Heart pain, pain of the Heart and back, rebellious qi with cough, asthma, sudden dyspnoea, inability to breathe, abscess of the Lung with purulent bloody coughing.
  • Rattling sound in the throat, accumulation of phlegm in the throat, plumstone qi, ulceration of the throat which prevents eating, swelling of the throat, cold sensation of the throat, dry throat, much spittle, throat painful obstruction, cracked voice, sudden loss of voice, inability to speak, swelling of the neck, goitre.
  • Oesophageal constriction, vomiting, jaundice.
  • Purple-green veins beneath the tongue, nosebleed, heat sensation of the skin of the face, red face, swelling of the back of the neck and shoulder, chills and fever, heat sensation of the skin of the abdomen, urticaria, numbness of the flesh of the body.
  • Descends rebellious qi and alleviates cough and wheezing
  • Benefits the throat and voice
CV-23
Lianquan
(Corner Spring)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
Vishuddhi/Throat
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
Nila,
Sira Matrika

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the anterior midline of the neck, in the depression above the hyoid bone.

Landmark: 1. Run a finger gently along the underside of the chin towards the throat until it falls into the deep depression just in front of the hyoid bone.
2. the hyoid bone is readily located as the most superior palpable bony structure at the midline of the throat and runs transversely above the laryngeal prominence; this point is located at its superior border.
  • Swelling below the tongue with difficulty speaking, sudden loss of voice, loss of voice following windstroke, contraction of the root of the tongue with difficulty in eating, protrusion of the tongue, much spittle, dryness of the mouth, thirst, mouth ulcers, lockjaw.
  • Cough, rebellious qi, dyspnoea, chest pain, vomiting of foam.
  • Benefits the tongue
  • Descends qi and alleviates cough
According to several modern texts, this point is contraindicated to moxibustion.
CV-24
Chengjiang
(Container of Fluids)


Meridian:
Conception Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Ghost

Function:
Ghost Market
Above the chin, in the depression in the centre of the mentolabial groove.

Landmark: The mentolabial groove runs horizontally, approximately midway between the chin and the lower lip.
  • Hemiplegia, deviation of the mouth and eye, lockjaw, wind epilepsy, stiffness of the head and nape, tetany, mania-depression.
  • Pain and numbness of the face, swelling of the face, pain of the teeth and gums, sudden loss of voice, purple lips, excessive production of watery saliva, dry mouth, wasting and thirsting disorder with great desire to drink, nosebleed.
  • Dark urine, sweating, shan disorder in men, abdominal (zheng jia) masses in women.
  • Extinguishes wind and benefits the face
  • Regulates the Conception vessel
GV-1
Changqiang
(Long Strong)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
Muladhara/Root
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
Guda

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Luo/Bridge

Function:
NA
On the midline, midway between the tip of the coccyx and the anus.

Landmark: This point may be located and needled with the patient either: i. lying on the front, ii. lying on the side with knees drawn up, or iii. first sitting on the heels and then leaning forwards and resting the upper body weight on the elbows with the head on the hands.
  • Haemorrhoids, the five types of haemorrhoids, chronic haemorrhoids, difficult defecation, cold or damp (dong) diarrhoea, blood in the stool, prolapse of the rectum.
  • The five types of painful urinary dysfunction, difficult urination, retention of urine, dark urine, sexual taxation, seminal emission due to fear and fright.
  • Pain of the lumbar region, heavy sensation of the sacrum, heaviness of the head, shaking of the head, stiffness of the spine, pain of the Heart.
  • Mania, fright epilepsy, upward staring eyes, mad walking, tetany, clonic spasm, vomiting blood.
  • Treats haemorrhoids
  • Benefits the two lower yin
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Calms the spirit
GV-2
Yaoshu
(Lumbar Shu)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline, in the sacro-coccygeal hiatus.

Landmark: The sacro-coccygeal hiatus is located in-between the cornua of the sacrum and coccyx, in the depression inferior to the fourth sacral spinous process if this is palpable. Note, however, that the sacro-coccygeal hiatus may sometimes extend as high as the level of the third sacral foramina.
  • Pain of the sacrum, pain of the lumbar region and hips with inability to flex and extend, lumbar pain radiating to the foot, cold painful obstruction with numbness of the leg.
  • Irregular menstruation, red and white leucorrhoea, dark urine, haemorrhoids.
  • Warm malaria with absence of sweating, epilepsy, injury by cold with ceaseless heat in the four limbs.
  • Benefits the lumbar region and legs
  • Dispels wind-damp
GV-3
Yaoyangguan
(Lumbar Yang Gate)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
Swadhisthana/Sacral
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the lower back, in the depression below the spinous process of the fourth lumbar vertebra.

Landmark: This point is located one intervertebral space below the line connecting the highest points of the two iliac crests (level with the lower border of L3).
  • Inability to flex and extend the knee, pain of the outer aspect of the knee, wind painful obstruction with numbness, contraction of the sinews, inability to walk, pain of the crotch and lumbar region due to taxation injury.
  • Seminal emission, impotence, white turbidity, disorders of menstruation, leucorrhoea.
  • Dispels wind-damp
  • Benefits the lumbar region and legs
  • Regulates the lower jiao
The spinal canal lies between 1.25 and 1.75 cun deep to the skin surface, varying according to body build.
GV-4
Mingmen
(Gate of Life)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the lower back, in the depression below the spinous process of the second lumbar vertebra.

Landmark: This point is located one intervertebral space above the line connecting the highest points of the two iliac crests (level with the lower border of L3).
  • Heat in the body like fire, absence of sweating, steaming bones, heat of the five zang, malaria with alternating chills and fever.
  • Shaking of the head with open mouth, tinnitus, dizziness, opisthotonos, splitting headache, childhood epilepsy, fear and fright.
  • Seminal emission, white turbidity, red and white leucorrhoea, shan disorder.
  • Prolapse of the rectum, haemorrhoids, blood in the stool.
  • Stiffness of the lumbar spine, pain of the lumbar spine radiating to the abdomen, Kidney deficiency lumbar pain, all types of lumbar pain due to deficiency, spinal rigidity with inability to flex and extend the back, cold painful obstruction of the hands and feet.
  • Clears heat
  • Regulates the Governing vessel
  • Tonifies the Kidneys
  • Benefits the lumbar spine
The spinal canal lies between 1.25 and 1.75 cun deep to the skin surface, varying according to body build.
GV-5
Xuanshu
(Suspended Pivot)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the lower back, in the depression below the spinous process of the first lumbar vertebra.

Landmark: This point is located two intervertebral spaces above the line connecting the highest points of the two iliac crests (level with the lower border of L3).
  • Stiffness of the lumbar spine with inability to flex and extend.
  • Undigested food (in the stool), diarrhoea, running piglet qi, shan disorder, retraction of the testicles.
  • Benefits the lumbar spine
  • Benefits the lower jiao
The spinal canal lies between 1.25 and 1.75 cun deep to the skin surface, varying according to body build.
GV-6
Jizhong
(Centre of the Spine)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
Manipura/Solar Plexus
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the back, in the depression below the spinous process of the eleventh thoracic vertebra.

Landmark: This point is located four intervertebral spaces above the line connecting the highest points of the two iliac crests (level with the lower border of L3).
  • Abdominal fullness with no pleasure in eating, abdominal (ji ju) masses, jaundice, diarrhoea, diarrhoea with inability to eat, blood in the stool, the five types of haemorrhoids, prolapse of the rectum in children.
  • Stiffness of the lumbar spine, wind epilepsy, warm febrile disease.
  • Fortifies the Spleen and drains damp
  • Benefits the spine
The spinal canal lies between 1.25 and 1.75 cun deep to the skin surface, varying according to body build.
According to a number of classical texts, this point is contraindicated to moxibustion.
GV-7
Zhongshu
(Central Pivot)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the back, in the depression below the spinous process of the tenth thoracic vertebra.

Landmark: This point is located five intervertebral spaces above the line connecting the highest points of the two iliac crests (level with the lower border of L3).
  • Pain of the lumbar region and back.
  • Abdominal fullness, no desire to eat, jaundice, amenorrhoea.
  • Benefits the spine
  • Benefits the middle jiao
The spinal canal lies between 1.25 and 1.75 cun deep to the skin surface, varying according to body build.
GV-8
Jinsuo
(Sinew Contraction)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the back, in the depression below the spinous process of the ninth thoracic vertebra.

Landmark: This point is located six intervertebral spaces above the line connecting the highest points of the two iliac crests (level with the lower border of L3).
  • Upward staring eyes, clonic spasm, epilepsy, childhood fright epilepsy, stiffness and contraction of the spine, pain of the Heart.
  • Mania, mad walking, incessant talking, jaundice, anger injuring the Liver.
  • Soothes the Liver, pacifies wind and relieves spasm
  • Calms the spirit
The spinal canal lies between 1.25 and 1.75 cun deep to the skin surface, varying according to body build.
GV-9
Zhiyang
(Reaching Yang)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the back, in the depression below the spinous process of the seventh thoracic vertebra.

Landmark: This point is located seven intervertebral spaces below C7.
  • Cold in the Stomach, inability to eat, emaciation, borborygmus, heaviness and pain of the four limbs, weakness of the four limbs with malaise of the whole body due to exterior heat or cold pathogen, diminished qi difficulty in speaking.
  • The five types of jaundice, fullness of the chest and lateral costal region, cough, dyspnoea, heat in the Kidneys.
  • Pain of the lumbar spine, stiffness of the spine.
  • Fortifies the Spleen, drains dampness and regulates the middle jiao
  • Treats jaundice
  • Unbinds the chest
The spinal canal lies between 1.25 and 1.75 cun deep to the skin surface, varying according to body build.
GV-10
Lingtai
(Spirit Tower)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
Anahata/Heart
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the back, in the depression below the spinous process of the sixth thoracic vertebra.

Landmark: This point is located six intervertebral spaces below C7.
  • Dyspnoea, asthma, chronic cough, wind cold chronic cough.
  • Heat in the Spleen, steaming bone taxation consumption, carbuncles and furuncles, clove sores.
  • Back pain, stiffness of the neck.
  • Alleviates cough and wheezing
  • Clears heat and detoxifies poison
The spinal canal lies between 1.25 and 1.75 cun deep to the skin surface, varying according to body build.
GV-11
Shendao
(Spirit Pathway)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the upper back, in the depression below the spinous process of the fifth thoracic vertebra.

Landmark: This point is located five intervertebral spaces below C7.
  • Sadness and anxiety, poor memory, fright palpitations, disorientation, timidity with shortness of breath, lack of qi, taxation consumption.
  • Childhood wind epilepsy, clonic spasm, childhood fright wind, lockjaw.
  • Fever due to injury by cold with headache that comes and goes, heat in the body, cough and hot dyspnoea, malaria, dizziness, heat in the Liver.
  • Pain and cold sensation of the upper back.
  • Tonifies the Heart and Lung and calms the spirit
  • Clears heat and pacifies wind
The spinal canal lies between 1.25 and 1.75 cun deep to the skin surface, varying according to body build.
GV-12
Shenzhu
(Body Pillar)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the upper back, in the depression below the spinous process of the third thoracic vertebra.

Landmark: This point is located three intervertebral spaces below C7.
  • Heat in the chest, dyspnoea, sudden cough with lumbar pain, heat in the body, dry mouth, agitation with thirst, headache and sweating.
  • Mad walking, delirious raving, seeing ghosts, rage with desire to kill people.
  • Childhood fright epilepsy, clonic spasm, opisthotonos, clove sores.
  • Clears heat from the Lung and Heart
  • Calms the spirit
  • Pacifies wind
The spinal canal lies between 1.25 and 1.75 cun deep to the skin surface, varying according to body build.
GV-13
Taodao
(Way of Happiness)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline of the upper back, in the depression below the spinous process of the first thoracic vertebra.

Landmark: This point is located one intervertebral space below C7.
  • Malaria, chronic malaria, chills and fever, absence of sweating, steaming bone disorder.
  • Stiffness of the spine, heaviness of the head, visual dizziness, clonic spasm, agitation and fullness, unhappiness and disorientation.
  • Clears heat and treats malaria
  • Regulates the Governing vessel
The spinal canal lies between 1.25 and 1.75 cun deep to the skin surface, varying according to body build.
GV-14
Dazhui
(Great Vertebra)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
Vishuddhi/Throat
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Four Seas

Function:
Sea of Qi
On the midline at the base of the neck, in the depression below the spinous process of the seventh cervical vertebra.

Landmark: The spinal canal lies between 1.25 and 1.75 cun deep to the skin surface, varying according to body build.
  • Injury by cold leading to high fever with agitation and vomiting, aversion to wind with shivering, chills and fever, warm malaria, chronic malaria, throat painful obstruction, fullness of the chest and lateral costal region with dyspnoea.
  • Deficiency sweating, night sweating, steaming bone disorder, heat in the bones, lack of strength, shortness of breath with inability to speak, the five taxations and the seven injuries, wind-taxation, pain of the hundred joints.
  • Epilepsy, chronic and acute childhood fright wind, hypertension, insomnia, vomiting blood, nosebleed that does not stop.
  • Stiffness of the spine, stiffness of the nape and neck with inability to turn the head.
  • Expels wind and firms the exterior
  • Clears heat
  • Treats malaria
  • Tonifies deficiency
  • Pacifies wind
GV-15
Yamen
(Gate of Muteness)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
Faecal channel

Part of Marma:
Krikatika,
Sira Matrika

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Four Seas

Function:
Sea of Qi
On the midline at the nape of the neck, in the depression 0.5 cun inferior to Fengfu GV-16, below the spinous process of the first cervical vertebra (impalpable).

Landmark: The posterior hairline is measured as 1 cun inferior to Fengfu GV-16. Locate Yamen GV-15 at the midpoint, i.e. 0.5 cun above the posterior hairline.
  • Stiffness of the tongue with inability to speak, loss of voice, lotus flower tongue, flaccidity of the tongue.
  • Heaviness of the head, head wind, loss of consciousness from windstroke, epilepsy, clonic spasm, mania-depression, loss of consciousness, all kinds of yang heat and qi exuberance.
  • Absence of sweating, chills and fever, nosebleed that does not stop.
  • Stiffness of the neck, stiffness of the spine, sprain of the spine.
  • Benefits the tongue and treats muteness
  • Eliminates wind
  • Benefits the neck and spine
The spinal canal lies between 1.5 and 2 cun deep to the skin surface, varying according to body build. Deep perpendicular insertion is therefore strictly contraindicated, as is superior oblique insertion towards the brain.
GV-16
Fengfu
(Palace of Wind)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
Ajna/Third Eye
Srotas:
Faecal channel

Part of Marma:
Krikatika

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Four Seas,
Window of Sky,
Ghost

Function:
Sea of Marrow,
Feng Fu (Wind Palace),
Ghost Pillow
On the midline at the nape of the neck, in the depression immediately below the external occipital protuberance.

Landmark: 1. The external occipital protuberance is found as the bony prominence at the base of the skull on the midline, though in some individuals it may be difficult to feel.
2. This point lies approximately 1 cun above the posterior hairline.
  • Heaviness of the body with aversion to coldi cold shivering with sweating, swelling and pain of the throat, wind painful obstruction, all types of wind disease, injury by wind.
  • Headache, head wind, the hundred diseases of the head, visual dizziness, dizziness, blurred vision, nosebleed, upward staring eyes, sudden loss of voice, sudden inability to speak following windstroke, flaccid tongue with inability to speak, windstroke, numbness of the legs, hemiplegia, hypertension.
  • Mania, incessant talking, mad walking and desire to commit suicide, sadness and fear with fright palpitations.
  • Difficulty in breathing, heat in the chest, ceaseless vomiting, jaundice.
  • Pain of the neck with inability to turn the head, stiff neck.
  • Eliminates wind
  • Nourishes the sea of marrow and benefits the head and neck
  • Calms the Spirit
The spinal canal lies between 1.5 and 2 cun deep to the skin surface, varying according to body build. Deep perpendicular or superior oblique insertion is therefore strictly contraindicated.
GV-17
Naohu
(Brain Door)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
At the back of the head on the midline, 1.5 cun directly above Fengfu GV-16, in the depression directly superior to the external occipital protuberance.

Landmark: This point may be located at the junction of the lower quarter and the upper three quarters of the line connecting Fengfu GV-16 and Baihui GV-20.
  • Heaviness of the head, head wind, aversion to wind in the head, wind dizziness, swelling and pain of the head, pain of the face, red face, stiffness and pain of the neck.
  • Dimness of vision, short sightedness, eye pain, excessive lacrimation, yellow eyes, jaundice.
  • Mania, epilepsy, clonic spasm, lockjaw, loss of voice, bleeding from the root of the tongue, goitre, chills and fever, sweating, pain of the bones.
  • Eliminates wind and alleviates pain
  • Benefits the eyes
  • Calms the spirit
GV-18
Qiangjian
(Unyielding Space)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
At the back of the head on the midline, 1.5 cun directly superior to Naohu GV-17, midway between Fengfu GV-16 and Baihui GV-20.

Landmark: This point may be located at the midpoint of the line connecting Fengfu GV-16 and Baihui GV-20.
  • Headache, dizziness with agitation, nausea and vomiting of foamy (watery) saliva, stiffness of the neck with inability to turn the head.
  • Epilepsy, shaking of the head, mad walking, insomnia, mania-depression, clonic spasm.
  • Pacifies wind and alleviates pain
  • Calms the spirit
GV-19
Houding
(Behind the Crown)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
At the back of the head on the midline, 1.5 cun directly superior to Qiangjian GV-18 and 1.5 cun posterior to Baihui GV-20.

Landmark: This point may be located at the junction of the lower three quarters and the upper quarter of the line connecting Fengfu GV-16 and Baihui GV-20.
  • Stiffness and pain of the head and neck, one-sided headache, pain of the vertex, wind dizziness, aversion to wind and cold, painful obstruction with sweating.
  • Mad walking, insomnia, epileptic convulsions.
  • Eliminates wind and alleviates pain
  • Calms the spirit
GV-20
Baihui
(Hundred Meetings)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
Sahasrara/CrownSahasrara/Crown
Srotas:
Nervous or Marrow channel,
Mental channel

Part of Marma:
Adhipati

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Four Seas

Function:
Sea of Marrow
At the vertex on the midline, in the depression 5 cun posterior to the anterior hairline and 7 cun superior to the posterior hairline. This point may also be measured as 8 cun posterior to the glabella and 6 cun superior to the external occipital protuberance.

Landmark: 1. Place the heels of the hands on the anterior and posterior hairlines and extend the middle fingers towards each other; Baihui GV-20 is located 1 cun anterior to where the middle fingers meet.
2. If the anterior hairline is indistinct, place the heels of the hands on the glabella and external occipital protuberance and extend the middle finsers towards each other; Baihui GV-20 is located 1 cun posterior to where the middle fingers meet.
3. Extend a line along the long axis of the ear (from the midpoint of the lobe to the midpoint of the apex) in its slightly posterior direction to the top of the head where Baihui GV-20 may be found.
  • Head wind, one-sided headache, pain of the vertex, heaviness of the head, dizziness, wind dizziness, visual dizziness, tinnitus, protruding eyes, blindness, hypertension, hypotension.
  • Windstroke, hemiplegia, opisthotonos, tetany, loss of consciousness, vomiting of foam, wind epilepsy, lockjaw.
  • Prolapse of the rectum, prolapse of the uterus.
  • Agitation and oppression, sensation of heat and oppression of the Heart, fright palpitations, poor memory, lack of mental vigour, disorientation, much crying, sadness and crying with desire to die, mania.
  • Obstruction of the nose, nasal discharge, nosebleed, inability to taste food or drink.
  • Redness of the face after consumption of alcohol, heat in the body, malaria.
  • Pacifies wind and subdues yang
  • Raises yang and counters prolapse
  • Benefits the head and sense organs
  • Nourishes the sea of marrow
  • Benefits the brain and calms the spirit
GV-21
Qianding
(In Front of the Crown)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
At the top of the head on the midline, 1.5 cun directly anterior to Baihui GV-20 and 3.5 cun posterior to the anterior hairline.

Landmark: 1. Divide the distance between Baihui GV-20 and the anterior hairline into thirds. Qianding GV-21 lies slightly posterior to the junction of the first and middle thirds.
2. If the anterior hairline is indistinct, locate it 3 cun superior to the glabella and 5 cun anterior to Baihui GV-20.
  • Head wind, visual dizziness, wind epilepsy, childhood fright epilepsy, acute and chronic childhood fright wind, clonic spasm.
  • Pain and swelling of the vertex, swelling and redness of the face, oedema, aversion to wind-cold, copious clear nasal discharge.
  • Eliminates wind and treats convulsions
  • Benefits the head
This point should not be needled in infants whose fontanelle has not yet closed.
GV-22
Xinhui
(Fontanelle Meeting)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
Shringataka

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
At the top of the head on the midline, 2 cun posterior to the anterior hairline.

Landmark: 1. Divide the distance between Baihui GV-20 and the anterior hairline in half and locate Xinhui GV-22 at 0.5 cun anterior to this midpoint.
2. Locate 1 cun posterior to Shangxing GV-23.
3. If the anterior hairline is indistinct, locate it 3 cun superior to the glabella and 5 cun anterior to Baihui GV-20.
  • Nosebleed, nasal congestion, inability to distinguish the fragrant from the foul, excessive nasal discharge in children, pain of the nose, nasal polyps.
  • Head wind, chronic headache, deficiency and cold of the brain, bursting headache due to excessive consumption of alcohol, dizziness, visual dizziness, chronic and acute childhood fright wind.
  • Blue-green (qing) complexion, red and swollen face, swelling of the skin of the head, dandruff.
  • Somnolence, fright palpitations.
  • Benefits the nose
  • Eliminates wind and benefits the head
This point should not be needled in infants whose fontanelle has not yet closed.
GV-23
Shangxing
(Upper Star)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
Shringataka

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Ghost

Function:
Ghost Hall
At the top of the head on the midline, 1 cun posterior to the anterior hairline and 0.5 cun posterior to Shenting GV-24.

Landmark: If the anterior hairline is indistinct, locate it 3 cun superior to the glabella and 5 cun anterior to Baihui GV-20.
  • Nasal obstruction and discharge, nasal obstruction accompanied by headache, inability to distinguish the fragrant from the foul, nasal polyps, clear nasal discharge, rhinitis, ceaseless bleeding from the nose and mouth.
  • Visual dizziness, pain of the eyes, short sightedness, redness and swelling of the face, deficiency swelling of the face, swelling of the skin of the head, head wind.
  • Malaria, febrile disease with absence of sweating, mania-depression.
  • Benefits the nose and eyes
  • Eliminates wind, benefits the head and face and dispels swelling
  • Calms the spirit
GV-24
Shenting
(Courtyard of the Spirit)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
At the top of the head on the midline, 0.5 cun posterior to the anterior hairline and 0.5 cun anterior to Shangxing.

Landmark: If the anterior hairline is indistinct, locate it 3 cun superior to the glabella and 5 cun anterior to Baihui GV-20.
  • Mania-depression, ascends to high places and sings, discards clothing and runs around, mimics other people speech, fright palpitations, insomnia, loss of consciousness, tongue thrusting.
  • Upward staring eyes, opisthotonos, wind epilepsy, wind dizziness accompanied by vomiting, vomiting with agitation and fullness, dizziness, head wind, headache with chills and fever, cold sensation of the head.
  • Clear and ceaseless nasal discharge, nasal congestion and discharge, nosebleed, lacrimation, lack of visual clarity, dyspnoea.
  • Benefits the brain and calms the spirit
  • Eliminates wind and benefits the head
  • Benefits the nose and eyes
GV-25
Suliao
(White Crevice)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
Nervous or Marrow channel

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline at the tip of the nose.
  • Copious nasal discharge, rhinitis, inability to distinguish the fragrant from the foul, nasal obstruction, nasal sores, nosebleed, drinkers nose, nasal polyps, dyspnoea, hypotension.
  • Benefits the nose
GV-26
Renzhong
(Man Middle)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Command,
Ghost

Function:
Fainting & Collapse,
Ghost Place
Above the upper lip on the midline, at the junction of the upper third and lower two thirds of the philtrum.

Landmark: The philtrum is the marked indentation found on the midline between the root of the nose and the margin of the upper lip.
  • Sudden loss of consciousness, coma, acute and chronic childhood fright wind, loss of consciousness from windstroke, lockjaw, deviation of the face and mouth, headache with chills and fever, hypertension.
  • Mania-depression, epilepsy, inappropriate laughter, unexpected laughter and crying.
  • Ceaseless nosebleed, clear nasal discharge, constant nasal discharge with difficulty in breathing, inability to distinguish the fragrant from the foul.
  • Wasting and thirsting disorder, drinking water without limit, oedema of the body, swelling of the face with trembling lips, jaundice.
  • Stiffness and pain of the spine, sprain and pain of the lumbar spine.
  • Restores consciousness and calms the spirit
  • Benefits the face and nose and expels wind
  • Benefits the spine and treats acute lumbar sprain
Single most important point to revive consciousness and re-establish yin-yang harmony.
GV-27
Duiduan
(Extremity of the Mouth)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
Nervous or Marrow channel

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the midline, at the junction of the margin of the upper lip and the philtrum.

Landmark: The philtrum is the marked indentation found on the midline between the root of the nose and the margin of the upper lip.
  • Ulceration of the mouth, foul breath, pain of the gums, dry tongue, wasting and thirsting disorder with much drinking, swelling and stiffness of the lips, ceaseless nosebleed, nasal congestion.
  • Mania-depression, epilepsy, lockjaw.
  • Dark urine, vomiting of foam.
  • Clears heat, generates fluid and benefits the mouth
  • Calms the spirit
GV-28
Yinjiao
(Gum Intersection)


Meridian:
Governing Vessel

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
Inside the mouth, in the superior frenulum, at the junction of the upper lip and the gum.

Landmark: The superior frenulum is the midline band of fibrous tissue connecting the upper lip and gum.
  • Redness, swelling and pain of the gums, erosion of the gums, bleeding from the gums.
  • Nasal polyps, nasal sores, nasal congestion, pain of the forehead and glabella.
  • Excessive lacrimation, redness, itching and pain of the inner canthus, pain of the eyes and lack of clarity of vision, superficial visual obstruction.
  • Red face with agitation, jaundice, stiffness of the neck with inability to turn the head.
  • Clear heat and benefits the gums
  • Benefits the nose and eyes
ST-1
Chengqi
(Container of Tears)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Entry

Function:
NA
With the eyes looking directly forwards, this point is located directly below the pupil between the eyeball and the infraorbital ridge.
  • Redness, swelling and pain of the eyes, lacrimation on exposure to wind, cold lacrimation, hot lacrimation, superficial visual obstruction, dimness of vision, short sightedness, visual dizziness, night blindness, itching of the eyes, upward staring eyes, twitching of the eyelids.
  • Deviation of the mouth and eye, inability to speak, deafness and tinnitus
  • Benefits the eyes and stops lacrimation
  • Eliminates wind and clears heat
ST-2
Sibai
(Four Whites)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
With the eyes looking directly forwards, this point is located 1 cun directly below the pupil, in the depression at the infraorbital foramen.

Landmark: The infraorbital foramen can be felt by palpating downwards from the edge of the orbital bone, about 0.3 cun below the edge.
  • Redness and pain of the eyes, superficial visual obstruction, dimness of vision, visual dizziness, itching eyes, excessive lacrimation, deviation of the mouth and eye, twitching of the eyelids, headache.
  • Round worms in the bile duct.
  • Eliminates wind, clears heat and benefits the eyes
ST-3
Juliao
(Great Crevice)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
With the eyes looking directly forwards, this point is located directly below the pupil, level with the lower border of the ala nasi, on the lateral side of the naso-labial groove.
  • Pain and swelling of the external nose and cheek, nosebleed, toothache, swelling and pain of the lips and cheek, deviation of the mouth, aversion to wind and cold in the face and eyes, superficial visual obstruction, excessive lacrimation, clonic spasm.
  • Leg qi, swelling of the knee.
  • Eliminates wind, dissipates swelling and alleviates pain
ST-4
Dicang
(Earth Granary)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
0.4 cun lateral to the corner of the mouth

Landmark: This point lies in the continuation of the naso-labial groove; ask the patient to smile if the groove is not visible.
  • Deviation of the mouth, pain of the cheek, trigeminal neuralgia, drooling, food and drink leak out of the mouth, numbness of the lips and face, toothache, contraction of the facial muscles, loss of speech.
  • Ceaseless movement of the eyeball, inability to close the eye, twitching of the eyelids, itching of the eye, blurring of distant objects, night blindness.
  • Atrophy disorder with inability to walk, swelling of the leg, inability to eat.
  • Eliminates wind from the face
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
ST-5
Daying
(Great Welcome)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
Directly anterior to the angle of the jaw, in a depression at the anterior border of the masseter muscle.

Landmark: Ask the patient to clench the jaw before locating.
  • Wind tetany with lockjaw, deviation of the mouth, twitching of the lips, toothache of the lower jaw, frequent yawning, stiffness of the tongue with inability to speak, inability to close the eyes accompanied by pain of the eyes.
  • a Swelling of the face and lower cheek, wind obstructing the face leading to swelling, mumps, scrofula, neck pain with chills and fever, aversion to cold.
Vigorous manipulation is contraindicated to avoid the risk of damaging the facial artery and vein.
ST-6
Jiache
(Jaw Bone)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Ghost

Function:
Ghost Bed
Approximately 1 fingerbreadth anterior and superior to the angle of the jaw at the prominence of the masseter muscle.

Landmark: Ask the patient to clench the jaw before locating.
  • Deviation of the mouth and eye, swelling of the cheek, toothache, gum disorders, lockjaw, tension and pain of the jaw, inability to chew, inability to open the mouth following windstroke.
  • Stiffness and pain of the neck, mumps, loss of voice.
  • Eliminates wind and benefits the jaw and teeth
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
ST-7
Xiaguan
(Below the Joint)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
At the lower border of the zygomatic arch, in the depression anterior to the condyloid process of the mandible

Landmark: Although this point is needled with the mouth closed, it is helpful to ask the patient to open the mouth to better locate the condyloid process. If the finger rests on the condyloid process when the mouth is open, it will fall into Xiaguan ST-7 when the mouth is closed.
  • Deafness, tinnitus, ear pain, itching and purulent discharge from the ear.
  • Lockjaw, dislocation of the jaw.
  • Toothache, pain of the teeth of the lower jaw, swelling and pain of the gums (of the lower jaw), pain of the cheek and face, swelling of the cheek, yawning, deviation of the mouth and eye, visual dizziness.
  • Benefits the ears, jaw and teeth
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
ST-8
Touwei
(Head Binding)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
Blood channel,
Bone channel

Part of Marma:
Shringataka

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
At the corner of the forehead, 4.5 cun lateral to Shenting GV-24 and 0.5 cun within the anterior hairline

Landmark: There are three methods to locate this point: 1. Find the meeting point of a horizontal line drawn 0.5 cun within the anterior hairline, and a vertical line drawn 0.5 cun posterior to the hairline of the temple.
2. Locate Toulinqi GB-15 which lies directly above the pupil when the patient is looking directly forwards, and Shenting GV-24 which lies on the midline, 0.5 cun posterior to the anterior hairline. Touwei ST-8 lies on the continuation of a line drawn between these two points and twice its distance.
3. 0.5 cun superior to the upper line of origin of the temporalis muscle, 0.5 cun posterior to a vertical line drawn directly above Taiyang (M-HN-9).
  • Headache, splitting headache with chills and fever, dizziness, vomiting.
  • Dimness of vision, bursting eye pain, lacrimation on exposure to wind, twitching of the eyelids.
  • Dyspnoea with agitation and oppression, hemiplegia.
  • Eliminates wind and alleviates pain
  • Benefits the eyes
ST-9
Renying
(Man welcome)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
Nila

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Four Seas,
Window of Sky

Function:
Sea of Qi,
Ren Ying (Humanities Welcome)
Level with the tip of and 1.5 cun lateral to the laryngeal prominence, in the depression between the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the lateral border of the thyroid cartilage. Note: the carotid artery lies just deep to, and can be readily palpated at, the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. This point therefore lies between the carotid artery and the lateral border of the thyroid cartilage.

Landmark: 1. Ask the patient to lie flat and remove any pillow. Palpate the laryngeal prominence, and then, laterally, the lateral border of the thyroid cartilage. A little more laterally than this, the carotid artery may be felt. Use the index finger of one hand to define and enlarge the space between the lateral border of the thyroid cartilage and the artery and needle into this space with the other hand.
2. In females the laryngeal prominence is not as pronounced as in males. If it is indistinct, palpate the depression formed by the lower border of the hyoid bone and the upper border of the thyroid cartilage at the midline. The laryngeal prominence lies just below this.
  • Headache, dizziness, visual dizziness, red face, fullness of the chest, shortness of breath, asthma, sudden turmoil disorder, vomiting, pulseless syndrome, hypertension, hypotension.
  • Swelling and pain of the throat, scrofula, goitre, difficulty in swallowing.
  • Lumbar pain.
  • Regulates qi and blood and lowers rebellion
  • Benefits the throat and neck
  • Alleviates pain
Care should be taken to avoid puncturing the carotid artery which must be palpated and then held laterally during needling, by using the index finger and thumb of one hand, above and below the point. This needling method should not be attempted by those who have not had appropriate clinical supervision.
ST-10
Shuitu
(Water Prominence)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
To identify the anterior border of the muscle, ask the patient to turn their head away from the side to be needled, whilst you apply resistance at the chin.
  • Swelling and pain of the throat, goitre, scrofula.
  • Cough, whooping cough, shortness of breath, dyspnoea, swelling and pain of the shoulder.
  • Benefits the throat and neck
  • Descends Lung qi
Care should be taken to avoid puncturing the carotid artery which must be palpated and then held laterally during needling, by using the index finger and thumb of one hand, above and below the point. This needling method should not be attempted by those who have not had appropriate clinical supervision.
ST-11
Qishe
(Abode of Qi)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
At the root of the neck, superior to the medial end of the clavicle, directly below Renying ST-9 in the depression between the sternal and clavicular heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.

Landmark: Palpation of the sternal and clavicular heads is made easier if the patient turns their head away from the side to be needled, whilst you apply resistance at the chin.
  • Swelling and pain of the throat, scrofula, goitre, stiffness of the neck with inability to turh the head.
  • Dyspnoea, difficult ingestion, hiccup
  • Benefits the throat and neck and descends qi
ST-12
Quepen
(Empty Basin)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
In the supraclavicular area, posterior to the superior border of the clavicle and at its midpoint, 4 cun lateral to the midline, on the mamillary line.

Landmark: This point should be located and needled behind the clavicle.
  • Cough, coughing blood, dyspnoea, fullness of the chest, heat and fullness in the chest, chills and fever with sweating, absence of sweating, oedema, scrofula, throat painful obstruction.
  • Pain of the supraclavicular fossa, pain of the shoulder that radiates to the neck, numbness and painful obstruction of the upper limb, inability to raise the arm, lumbar pain with inability to turn.
  • Descends Lung qi and clears heat from the chest
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
Deep or posterior insertion may injure the subclavian vessels or puncture the lung.
ST-13
Qihu
(Qi Door)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
At the top of the chest, directly below Quepen ST-12, on the inferior border of the clavicle, 4 cun lateral to the midline, on the mamillary lin
  • Fullness and distention of the chest and lateral costal region, pain of the chest and upper back, cough, dyspnoea, asthma, wheezing, vomiting blood, hiccup, inability to taste food, stiffness of the neck with inability to turn the head.
  • Descends rebellious qi and unbinds the chest
Deep or perpendicular insertion carries a substantial risk of puncturing the lung or injuring the subclavian vessels.
ST-14
Kufang
(Storehouse)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the chest, in the first intercostal space, 4 cun lateral to the midline (Huagai CV-20), on the mamillary line.

Landmark: 1. First locate the costal cartilage of the second rib which is level with the sternal angle, then locate the first intercostal space above it.
2. Note that in males the nipple lies in the fourth intercostal space.
3. Note that the intercostal space curves upwards laterally, so that Kufang ST-14 will lie superior to the level of Huagai CV-20.
  • Distention and fullness of the chest and lateral costal region, cough, coughing of pus and blood, dyspnoea
  • Descends rebellious qi and unbinds the chest
Deep or perpendicular insertion carries a substantial risk of puncturing the lung
ST-15
Wuyi
(Room Screen)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the chest, in the second intercostal space, 4 cun lateral to the midline (Zigong CV-19), on the mamillary line.

Landmark: 1. First locate the costal cartilage of the second rib which is level with the sternal angle, then locate the second intercostal space below it.
2. Note that in males the nipple lies in the fourth intercostal space.
3. Note that the intercostal space curves upwards laterally, so that Wuyi ST-15 will lie superior to the level of Zigong CV-19.
  • Cough, wheezing, dyspnoea, shortness of breath, coughing of pus and blood, distention and pain of the chest and lateral costal region.
  • Breast pain, breast abscess.
  • Pain of the skin making wearing of clothes unbearable, generalised itching, heaviness of the body, swollen body, pain and weakness of the limbs.
  • Descends rebellious qi and unbinds the chest
  • Benefits the breasts
  • Alleviates pain and itching of the skin
Deep or perpendicular insertion carries a substantial risk of puncturing the lung
ST-16
Yingchuang
(Breast Window)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the chest, in the third intercostal cun lateral to the midline (Yutang CV-18), on the mamillary line.

Landmark: 1. First locate the second intercostal space (see Wuyi ST-15 above), then find the third intercostal space below it.
2. Note that in males the nipple lies in the fourth intercostal space.
  • Cough, fullness of the chest with shortness of breath, restless sleep, fever and chills, swelling of the lips, borborygmus and watery diarrhoea.
  • Breast abscess.
  • Alleviates cough and wheezing
  • Benefits the breasts
Deep or perpendicular insertion carries a substantial risk of puncturing the lung
ST-17
Ruzhong
(Middle of the Breast)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
Stanamula

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
At the centre of the nipple, in the fourth intercostal space, 4 cun lateral to the midline.

Landmark: Directly below the nipple, in the fifth intercostal space.
ST-18
Rugen
(Root of the Breast)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
Stanamula

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
Directly below the nipple, in the fifth intercostal space.

Landmark: 1. First locate the second intercostal space (see Wuyi ST-15 above), then find the fifth intercostal space, three spaces below it.
2. In males the nipple lies in the fourth intercostal space.
3. On a woman, this point lies at the ,root of the breast, inferior to the breast tissue itself; in females the nipple is unlikely to lie 4 cun lateral to the midline and should not be used as a reference point
  • Breast abscess, breast pain, scanty lactation, difficult labour.
  • Cough, dyspnoea, oppression and pain below the chest, oppression of the diaphragm, oesophageal constriction with difficult ingestion, sudden turmoil disorder with cramps, inversion counterflow of the four limbs, swelling and pain of the arm.
  • Benefits the breasts and reduces swelling
  • Unbinds the chest and alleviates cough and wheezing
Deep or perpendicular insertion carries a substantial risk of puncturing the lungs
ST-19
Burong
(Not Contained)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the abdomen, 2 cun lateral to the midline and 6 cun superior to the umbilicus, level with Juque CV-14.

Landmark: 1. The 2 cun line is located halfway between the midline and the palpable lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle.
2. In some patients with a narrow subcostal angle, this point may fall on the costal margin. The options then are to a. locate more medially, b. needle transversely on the costal margin, c. select a different point.
  • Abdominal distention, epigastric pain, vomiting, vomiting blood, poor appetite, abdominal deficiency borborygmus.
  • Cough, dyspnoea, difficult breathing with raised shoulders, pain of the chest, back, shoulder and intercostal region, pain of the Heart, dry mouth.
  • Harmonises the middle jiao and lowers rebellion
  • Descends qi and alleviates cough and wheezing
Deep insertion may injure the heart on the left or the liver on the right if either of these organs is enlarged
ST-20
Chengman
(Supporting Fullness)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the abdomen, 2 cun lateral to the midline and 5 cun superior to the umbilicus, level with Shangwan CV-13.

Landmark: 1. The 2 cun line is located halfway between the midline and the palpable lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle.
2. In some patients with a narrow subcostal angle, this point may fall on the costal margin. The options then are to a. locate more medially, b. needle transversely on the costal margin, c. select a different point.
  • Epigastric pain, vomiting, vomiting blood, spitting blood, hiccup, difficult ingestion, poor appetite, abdominal distention, borborygmus, diarrhoea, hardness and pain of the lateral costal region.
  • Shortness of breath, wheezing, difficult breathing with raised shoulders.
  • Harmonises the middle jiao
  • Descends rebellion of the Lung and Stomach
1. In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
2. deep needling at right Chengman ST-20 may penetrate an enlarged liver
ST-21
Liangmen
(Beam Gate)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the abdomen, 2 cun lateral to the midline and 4 cun superior to the umbilicus, level with Zhongwan CV-12.

Landmark: 1. The 2 cun line is located halfway between the midline and the palpable lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle.
2. In some patients with a narrow subcostal angle, this point may fall on the costal margin. The options then are to a. locate more medially, b. needle transversely on the costal margin, c. select a different point.
  • Epigastric pain, qi accumulation in the lateral costal region, qi accumulation below the chest, abdominal distention.
  • Vomiting, poor appetite, borborygmus, slippery diarrhoea, undigested food (in the stool).
  • Regulates qi and alleviates pain
  • Harmonises the middle jiao and transforms stagnation
  • Raises the qi and stops diarrhoea
1. In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
2. deep needling at right Liangmen ST-21 may penetrate an enlarged liver.
ST-22
Guanmen
(Pass Gate)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the abdomen, 2 cun lateral to the midline and 3 cun superior to the umbilicus, level with Jianli CV-11.

Landmark: The 2 cun line is located halfway between the midline and the palpable lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle.
  • Abdominal qi accumulation, sensation of qi moving in the abdomen, abdominal pain, abdominal distention and fullness, acute periumbilical pain.
  • Constipation, borborygmus, diarrhoea, dysenteric disorder, poor appetite, oedema, enuresis, phlegm malaria with cold shivering.
  • Regulates qi and alleviates pain
  • Regulates the intestines and benefits urination
In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
ST-23
Taiyi
(Supreme Unity)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the abdomen, 2 cun lateral to the midline and 2 cun superior to the umbilicus, level with Xiawan CV-10.

Landmark: The 2 cun line is located halfway between the midline and the palpable lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle.
  • Mania-depression, agitation, tongue thrusting, mad walking.
  • Epigastric pain, abdominal pain, poor appetite, diarrhoea, shan disorder.
  • Transforms phlegm and calms the spirit
  • Harmonises the middle jiao
In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
ST-24
Huaroumen
(Slippery Flesh Gate)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the abdomen, 2 cun lateral to the midline and 1 cun superior to the umbilicus, level with Shuifen CV-9.

Landmark: The 2 cun line is located halfway between the midline and the palpable lateral border of the rectus abdorninis muscle.
  • Mania-depression, tongue thrusting, stiff tongue, lotus flower tongue.
  • Vomiting, vomiting of blood, epigastric pain.
  • Transforms phlegm and calms the spirit
  • Harmonises the Stomach and alleviates vomiting
In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity
ST-25
Tianshu
(Heaven Pivot)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Mu/Front

Function:
Large Intestine organ
On the abdomen, 2 cun lateral to the umbilicus

Landmark: The 2 cun line on the abdomen is located halfway between the midline and the palpable lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle.
  • Diarrhoea, Spleen-diarrhoea, persistent diarrhoea with undigested food (in the stool), dysenteric disorder, borborygmus, lower yuan (origin) deficient and cold, constipation.
  • Oedema, drum distention, swelling of the face, turbid painful urinary dysfunction.
  • Vomiting, retching, difficult ingestion, poor appetite, sudden turmoil disorder.
  • Abdominal pain, abdominal distention with laboured breathing, intestinal abscess, generalised swelling with severe cutting periumbilical pain, umbilical shan disorder with localised pain that periodically surges up to the Heart, shan disorder, running piglet qi.
  • Abdominal (zheng jia) masses in women, pain of the uterus, dysmenorrhoea, irregular menstruation, infertility, red and white leucorrhoea.
  • Cold shivering from malaria, severe heat with manic raving.
  • Regulates the Spleen and Stomach
  • Resolves dampness and damPC-heat
  • Regulates qi and blood and eliminates stagnation
Single most important point for the treatment of the widest variety of intestinal disorders. In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
ST-26
Wailing
(Outer Mound)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the lower abdomen, 2 cun lateral to the midline and 1 cun inferior to the umbilicus, level with Yinjiao CV-7.

Landmark: The 2 cun line is located halfway between the midline and the palpable lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle at the level of the umbilicus.
  • Severe abdominal pain, abdominal distention, shan disorder.
  • Dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea
  • Regulates qi and alleviates pain
In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity
ST-27
Daju
(The Great)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the lower abdomen, 2 cun lateral to the midline and 2 cun inferior to the umbilicus, level with Shimen CV-5.

Landmark: The 2 cun line is located halfway between the midline and the palpable lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle at the level of the umbilicus.
  • Premature ejaculation, seminal emission, irregular menstruation, difficult urination, retention of urine.
  • Fright palpitations and insomnia, propensity to fright, agitation with thirst, loss of use of the four limbs, hemiplegia.
  • Lower abdominal distention and fullness, shan disorder.
  • Benefits the Kidneys and firms essence
  • Regulates qi and promotes urination
In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity
ST-28
Shuidao
(Water Passage)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the lower abdomen, 2 cun lateral to the midline and 3 cun inferior to the umbilicus, level with Guanyuan CV-4.

Landmark: The 2 cun line is located halfway between the midline and the palpable lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle at the level of the umbilicus.
  • Retention of urine and faeces, oedema, cold in the Bladder, distention and fullness of the lower abdomen, shan disorder.
  • Hypogastric pain in women extending to the genitals, dysmenorrhoea, infertility, cold in the uterus that radiates down the thigh to the knee, uterine (jia) masses, retention of dead foetus, retention of the placenta, lumbar pain accompanying menstruation, heat binding the three jiao.
  • Pain of the lumbar vertebrae, pain of the shoulder and back.
  • Regulates the lower jiao and dispels stagnation
  • Benefits the Bladder and the uterus
Deep insertion may penetrate the peritoneal cavity in thin patients or may penetrate a full bladder; the patient should therefore be asked to empty the bladder before needling.
ST-29
Guilai
(Return)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the lower abdomen, 2 cun lateral to the midline and 4 cun inferior to the umbilicus, level with Zhongji CV-3.

Landmark: The 2 cun line is located halfway between the midline and the palpable lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle at the level of the umbilicus.
  • Amenorrhoea, irregular menstruation, uterine (ji) masses, uterine prolapse, swelling, pain and cold of the vagina, infertility, leucorrhoea.
  • Retraction of the testicles, pain of the penis, impotence, seminal emission, nocturnal urination, the seven kinds of shan disorder, running piglet qi, hypogastric pain.
  • Warms the lower jiao
  • Regulates menstruation and benefits the genital region
Deep insertion may penetrate the peritoneal cavity in thin patients or may penetrate a full bladder; the patient should therefore be asked to empty the bladder before needling.
ST-30
Qichong
(Rushing Qi)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Four Seas

Function:
Sea of Water & Grain
On the lower abdomen, 2 cun lateral to the midline, level with the superior border of the pubic symphysis (Qugu CV-2).

Landmark: The 2 cun line is located halfway between the midline and the palpable lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle at the level of the umbilicus.
  • Hypogastric pain, sudden fullness and distention of the abdomen, fullness of the abdomen with inability to lie down, twisting pain of the abdomen, heat in the abdomen, heat in the body with abdominal pain, hardness below the umbilicus, retention of urine and faeces, heat in the Large Intestine, prolapse of the rectum, injury by cold leading to heat in the Stomach, hot painful urinary dysfunction, stone oedema.
  • Irregular menstruation, sudden amenorrhoea, abnormal uterine bleeding, infertility, disorders related to childbirth, retention of the placenta, difficult lactation.
  • Swelling and pain of the external vagina, swelling and pain of the penis, pain of the testicles, retraction and pain of both testicles, shan disorder, impotence, pain of the lumbar region with difficulty in turning, fullness of the lateral costal region.
  • Running piglet qi, qi rushing upwards to attack the Heart, foetus (foetal qi) rushes up to attack the Heart.
  • Regulates qi in the lower jiao
  • Regulates the Penetrating vessel
  • Subdues running piglet qi
Single most important point in the treatment of running piglet qi. In thin patients, i. deep insertion in a superior direction may penetrate the peritoneal cavity or a full bladder (the patient should therefore be asked to empty the bladder before needling); ii. deep insertion in an inferior direction in the male may penetrate the spermatic cord.
ST-31
Biguan
(Thigh Gate)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the upper thigh, in a depression just lateral to the sartorius muscle, at the junction of a vertical line drawn downward from the anterior superior iliac spine, and a horizontal line drawn level with the lower border of the pubic symphysis.

Landmark: The horizontal level may also be taken as approximately the most prominent point of the greater trochanter.
  • Atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the lower limb, hemiplegia, numbness of the legs, cold damp leg qi, pain of the hip joint, pain of the thigh, sciatica, contraction of the thigh muscles, cold painful obstruction of the knees, inability to extend and bend the knee, lumbar pain, jaundice.
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Dispels wind-damp
ST-32
Fufu
(Crouching Rabbit)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
Urvi

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the thigh, on a line drawn between the lateral border of the patella and the anterior superior iliac spine, in a depression 6 cun proximal to the superior border of the patella.

Landmark: Divide the distance between the prominence of the greater trochanter and the upper border of the patella into thirds; this point is located just superior to the junction of the lower and middle thirds.
  • Painful obstruction and atrophy disorder of the lower limb, leg qi, pain, numbness and contraction of the muscles of the thigh, coldness and pain of the knee, weakness of the knee, lumbar pain, contraction of the arm.
  • Shan disorder, abdominal distention with diminished qi, diseases of the eight regions in women, mania, ghost talk, urticaria, heavy head.
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Dispels wind-damp
ST-33
Yinshi
(Yin Market)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
Ani

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the thigh, on a line drawn between the lateral border of the patella and the anterior superior iliac spine, in a depression 3 cun proximal to the superior border of the patella.

Landmark: 1. Locate Yinshi ST-33 one handbreadth proximal to the upper border of the patella.
2. Locate Yinshi ST-33 midway between Futu ST-32 and the upper border of the patella.
  • Sensation like cold water in the lumbar region and legs, difficulty in stretching and bending the leg, atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the leg, leg qi, weakness of the leg and knee, pain of the thigh and knee.
  • Wasting and thirsting disorder, cold shan disorder, distention and pain of the abdomen, oedema with enlarged abdomen.
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Dispels wind-damp
ST-34
Liangqiu
(Ridge Mound)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Xi/Cleft

Function:
NA
On the thigh, on a line drawn between the lateral border of the patella and the anterior superior iliac spine, in a depression 2 cun proximal to the superior border of the patella.

Landmark: Since the height of the patella is measured as 2 cun, this point may be located one patella length above its superior border.
  • Swelling and pain of the knee, difficulty in flexing and extending the knee, pain of the knee and leg, crane knee wind, difficulty in walking, painful obstruction of the shin, cold painful obstruction with numbness, cold of the legs and feet, lumbar pain.
  • Epigastric pain, acid regurgitation, breast abscess, pain and swelling of the breast, big fright.
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Harmonises the Stomach and alleviates pain
  • Moderates acute conditions
ST-35
Dubi
(Calf Nos)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
Janu

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
NA

Function:
NA
On the knee, in the hollow formed when the knee is flexed, immediately below the patella and lateral to the patellar ligament.

Landmark: This point is also known as lateral Xiyan, forming a pair with medial Xiyan (MN-LE-16) [see Extra points] which lies immediately below the patella and medial to the patellar ligament.
  • Swelling and pain of the knee joint, difficulty in flexing and extending the knee, weakness of the knee joint, numbness of the knee, numbness of the lower limb, atrophy disorder of the lower limb, leg qi
  • Dispels wind-damp and reduces swelling
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
ST-36
Zusanli
(Leg Three Miles)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
Avalambaka (Kapha),
Kledaka (Kapha)

Category:
Five Shu (He-sea),
Command,
Lower He Sea,
Four Seas,
Ma Danyang/12 Star Points

Function:
Abdomen,
Stomach organ,
Sea of Water & Grain
Below the knee, 3 cun inferior to Dubi ST-35, one finger breadth lateral to the anterior crest of the tibia.

Landmark: 1. First locate Yanglingquan GB-34. Zusanli ST-36 lies one cun inferior to Yanglingquan GB-34 and one finger breadth lateral to the anterior crest of the tibia.
2. Locate one handbreadth below Dubi ST-35.
  • Epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, bitter vomiting, vomiting pus and blood, hiccup, belching, distention and pain of the abdomen, fullness and distention of the Heart and abdomen, heat in the middle jiao with propensity to hunger, hunger without desire to eat, poor appetite, difficult ingestion.
  • Borborygmus, flatulence, diarrhoea and dysenteric disorder, undigested food (in the stool), cold in the middle jiao with borborygmus, cold in the intestines, chronic diarrhoea, sudden turmoil disorder, leg qi, oedema, heaviness of the four limbs, lower abdominal pain and swelling with inability to urinate, jaundice.
  • The five taxations and the seven injuries, insufficiency of original qi, insufficiency of yin qi, insufficiency of zang qi, insufficiency of Stomach qi, deficient dyspnoea, shortness of breath and cough, dyspnoea with inability to stand for long.
  • Dizziness, post-partum blood dizziness, dimness of vision, tinnitus, palpitations, hypertension.
  • Mania-depression, manic singing, raving, abusive talk, anger and fright, tendency to sadness, outrageous laughter, agitation with heat in the body.
  • Throat painful obstruction with inability to speak, chills and fever, febrile disease with absence of sweating, febrile disease with heavy head and pain of the forehead, headache, cold nose, pain of the brain, pain of the lateral costal region, blood stasis in the interior, blood stasis in the chest, sudden Heart pain, fullness of the chest and lateral costal region, qi rushing up to the chest.
  • Lockjaw, clonic spasm, loss of consciousness.
  • Breast abscess, swelling of the breast, pain of the knee and shin, pain of the thigh and shin, windstroke, hemiplegia, muscle pain, chronic painful obstruction, lumbar pain with inability to turn, shan disorder.
  • Swollen belly, cold stomach, intestinal noises, diarrhea, swollen leg, sore knee or calf, injury from cold, weakness or emaciation, parasites, aging
  • Harmonises the Stomach
  • Fortifies the Spleen and resolves dampness
  • Supports the correct qi and fosters the original qi
  • Tonifies qi and nourishes blood and yin
  • Clears fire and calms the spirit
  • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
  • Revives the yang and restores consciousness
Single most important point to treat disorders of stomach.
ST-37
Shangjuxu
(Upper Great Void)


Meridian:
Stomach Meridian

Chakra:
NA
Srotas:
NA

Part of Marma:
NA

Subdosha:
NA

Category:
Lower He Sea,
Four Seas

Function:
Large Intestine organ,
Sea of Blood
On the lower leg, 3 cun inferior to ST-36, one finger breadth lateral to the anterior crest of the tibia.

Landmark: Locate one handbreadth below ST-36.
    • Regulates the intestines and transforms stagnation
    • Clears damp heat and alleviates diarrhea and dysenteric disorder
    • Regulates the Spleen and Stomach
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    ST-38
    Tiaokou
    (Lines Opening)


    Meridian:
    Stomach Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the lower leg, midway between the tibioul femoral joint line (level with the popliteal crease) and the prominence of the lateral malleolus, one fingerbreadth lateral to the anterior crest of the tibia.
    • Atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the lower limb, damp painful obstruction, numbness, coldness, swelling and pain of the shin, inability to stand for long, swelling of the thigh and knee, heat in the soles of the feet.
    • Pain and stiffness of the shoulder, abdominal pain.
    • Expels wind-damp and alleviates pain
    • Benefits the shoulder
    ST-39
    Xiajuxu
    (Lower Great Void)


    Meridian:
    Stomach Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Lower He Sea,
    Four Seas

    Function:
    Small Intestine organ,
    Sea of Blood
    On the lower leg, 3 cun inferior to Shangjuxu ST-37, one finger-breadth lateral to the anterior crest of the tibia.

    Landmark: Divide the distance between the tibiofemoral joint line (level with the popliteal crease) and the prominence of the lateral malleolus into two equal parts. The midpoint is Tiaokou ST-38; Xiajuxu ST-39 is located 1 cun below Tiaokou ST-38.
    • Lower abdominal pain, lumbar pain that radiates to the testicles.
    • Diarrhoea, diarrhoea containing undigested food, dysenteric disorder, pus and blood in the stool, insufficiency of Small Intestine qi, dark urine.
    • Breast abscess, manic raving, sudden fright, drooling, dry lips, throat painful obstruction, absence of sweating, no pleasure in eating, pallor.
    • Painful obstruction and atrophy disorder of the lower limb, hemiplegia of the leg, atrophy disorder of the foot, pain of the heel, extreme sensation of cold and heat in the shoulder, heat sensation in the area between the ring and little fingers, burning sensation in front of the ears.
    • Moves Small Intestine qi and transforms stagnation
    • Regulates and hmonises the intestines and clears damPC-heat
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    ST-40
    Fenglong
    (Abundant Bulge)


    Meridian:
    Stomach Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Luo/Bridge

    Function:
    NA
    On the lower leg, midway between the tibiofemoral joint line (level with the popliteal crease) and the lateral malleolus, two finger-breadths lateral to the anterior crest of the tibia (i.e. one finger-breadth lateral to Tiaokou ST-38).
    • Copious phlegm, fullness, oppression and pain of the chest, stabbing pain of the chest, cutting pain of the abdomen, swelling of the face, dizziness, headache, wind-phlegm headache, plumstone qi (globus hystericus), swelling and pain of the throat, throat painful obstruction with sudden loss of voice.
    • Damp body, slackness and heaviness of the body.
    • Cough and shortness of breath, cough with copious phlegm, wheezing, dyspnoea, asthma.
    • Mania-depression, mad laughter, great happiness, desires to ascend to high places and sing, discards clothing and runs around, restlessness, seeing ghosts, indolence, epilepsy, hypertension.
    • Constipation, difficulty in passing urine and stools.
    • Atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the lower limb, pain of the knee and leg, difficulty in flexing and extending the knee, lack of control of the legs, withering of the lower legs.
    • Transforms phlegm and dampness
    • Benefits the chest
    • Clears phlegm from the Lung and alleviates
    • cough and wheezing
    • Clears phlegm from the Heart and calms the spirit
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    Single most important acupuncture point to transform phlegm in the body, whatever its origin.
    ST-41
    Jiexi
    (Stream Divide)


    Meridian:
    Stomach Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (Jing-river),
    Five Element (Mother)

    Function:
    NA
    On the ankle, level with the prominence of the lateral malleolus, in a depression between the tendons of extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus.

    Landmark: Ask the patient to extend the big toe against resistance in order to define the tendon of extensor hallucis longus, and locate Jiexi ST-41 lateral to this tendon and level with the prominence of the lateral malleolus. If in doubt, ask the patient to extend the remaining toes against resistance to define the tendon of extensor digitorum longus; Jiexi ST-41 is located between the two tendons.
    • Swelling of the face and head, frontal headache, pain of the eyebrow, head wind, redness of the face and eyes, visual dizziness, dizziness, pain in the mouth, biting of the tongue.
    • Abdominal distention, abdominal distention after eating, belching with abdominal distention and fullness, hunger with inability to eat, constipation.
    • Febrile disease with absence of sweating, malarial disorders, sudden turmoil disorder with cramps.
    • Epilepsy, clonic spasm, mania, agitation, sadness and weeping, fright palpitations, Stomach heat with raving, seeing ghosts, hypertension.
    • Swelling and pain of the ankle joint, droPC-foot, atrophy disorder of the leg, heaviness of the knee and thigh, sciatica, sinew painful obstruction, damp painful obstruction, injury of the big toe.
    • Clears heat from the Stomach channel and fu
    • Calms the spirit
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    Anterior tibia1 vessels and nerve lie deep to this point.
    ST-42
    Chongyang
    (Rushing Yang)


    Meridian:
    Stomach Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Kurchashira

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Yuan/Base,
    Exit

    Function:
    NA
    On the dorsum of the foot, in the depression formed by the junction of the second and third metatarsal bones and the cuneiform bones (second and third), 1.5 cun distal to Jiexi ST-41, on the line drawn between Jiexi ST-41 and Xiangu ST-43, at the point where the pulsation of the dorsalis pedis artery may be palpated.

    Landmark: 1. Run the finger proximally from Xiangu ST-43 towards Jiexi ST-41; the point is located in a depression approximately halfway between these two points.
    2. This point may lie either side of the medial slip of the extensor digitorum longus tendon, which runs to the second toe.
    • Deviation of the mouth and eye, swelling and pain of the face, swelling of the face, toothache, tooth decay, heat and pain of the inside of the mouth.
    • Abdominal distention with no pleasure in eating, epigastric pain, vomiting.
    • Fever with absence of sweating, chills and fever with malarial disorder.
    • Mania-depression, desires to ascend to high places and sing, discards clothing and runs around.
    • Swelling and pain of the dorsum of the foot, atrophy disorder of the foot.
    • Clears heat from the Stomach channel
    • Harmonises the Stomach fu
    • Calms the spirit
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    Care should be takennot to puncture the dorsalis pedis artery which lies beneath this point
    ST-43
    Xiangu
    (Sunken Valley)


    Meridian:
    Stomach Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (Shu-stream)

    Function:
    NA
    On the dorsum of the foot, between the second and third metatarsal bones, in a depression 1 cun proximal to Neiting ST-44.
    • Oedema, oedema and swelling of the face, pain and swelling of the eyes.
    • Abdominal pain, abdominal distention and fullness, borborygmus, fullness of the chest and lateral costal region, belching.
    • Fever with absence of sweating, cold shivering with malarial disorders.
    • Swelling and pain of the dorsum of the foot, difficulty in flexing and extending the toes.
    • Regulates the Spleen and dispels oedema
    • Regulates and harmonises the Stomach and intestines
    ST-44
    Neiting
    (Inner Courtyard)


    Meridian:
    Stomach Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (Ying-spring),
    Ma Danyang/12 Star Points

    Function:
    NA
    On the dorsum of the foot, between the second and third toes, 0.5 cun proximal to the margin of the web.
    • Toothache, pain of the lower teeth, pain of the upper teeth, pain of the eye, pain of the face, deviation of the mouth and eye, nosebleed, throat painful obstruction, tinnitus, thirst.
    • Abdominal pain, distention of the lower abdomen, borborygmus, diarrhoea, dysenteric disorder, blood in the stool, constipation.
    • Febrile disease with absence of sweating, malarial disorders with no pleasure in eating, cold shivering, aversion to cold, hands and feet counterflow cold, hot inversion, urticaria, pain of the skin of the chest, blood in the urine.
    • Aversion to the sound of people talking, desire for silence, frequent yawning.
    • Pain and swelling of the dorsum of the foot.
    • Chill in the hands and feet, hatred of voices, skin rashes, sore throat, continuous yawning, toothache, intermittent fevers without appetite
    • Clears heat from the Stomach channel and alleviates pain
    • Harmonises the intestines and clears damPC-heat
    • Calms the spirit
    ST-45
    Lidui
    (Strict Exchange)


    Meridian:
    Stomach Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (Jing-well),
    Five Element (Child)

    Function:
    NA
    On the dorsal aspect of the second toe, at the junction of lines drawn along the lateral border of the nail and the base of the nail, approximately 0.1 cun from the corner of the nail.
    • Swelling of the face, heat in the head, nosebleed, yellow nasal discharge, rhinitis with nosebleed, toothache, lockjaw, throat painful obstruction, cracked lips, deviation of the mouth.
    • Fullness and distention of the chest and abdomen, excessive hunger, lack of appetite, inversion counterflow, malaria, febrile disease, febrile disease with absence of sweating, yellow urine, jaundice.
    • Loss of consciousness.
    • Excessive dreaming, easily frightened with desire to sleep, insomnia, dizziness, mania-depression, desires to ascend to high places and sing, discards clothing and runs around.
    • Sensation of cold in the shin, cold of the lower limbs and feet, swelling and pain of the knee.
    • Clears heat from the Stomach channel
    • Clears heat, calms the spirit and restores consciousness
    SP-1
    Yinbai
    (Hidden White)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (Jing-well),
    Entry,
    Ghost

    Function:
    Ghost Fortress
    On the dorsal aspect of the big toe, at the junction of lines drawn along the medial border of the nail and the base of the nail, approximately 0.1 cun from the corner of the nail.
    • Uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, blood in the urine, blood in the stool, vomiting blood, nosebleed, febrile disease with nosebleed.
    • Abdominal distention, sudden swelling of the four limbs, sudden diarrhoea, vomiting, no desire to eat or drink, difficult ingestion.
    • Agitation, heat in the chest, fullness of the chest, dyspnoea, sighing, propensity to sadness, maniadepression, excessive dreaming, insomnia, chronic childhood fright wind, loss of consciousness.
    • Fever with absence of sweating, cold feet, cold sensation in the lower leg.
    • Stops bleeding
    • Regulates the Spleen
    • Unbinds the chest
    • Calms the Heart and spirit and restores consciousness
    SP-2
    Dadu
    (Great Metropolis)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (Ying-spring),
    Five Element (Mother)

    Function:
    NA
    On the medial side of the big toe, in the depression distal and inferior to the first metatarso-phalangeal joint.

    Landmark: In the depression located by sliding the fingertip distally over the side of the ball of the foot.
    • Sudden swelling of the four limbs, heaviness of the body with pain of the bones, swelling of the limbs, oppression of the chest.
    • Abdominal distention, epigastric pain, vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation, agitation when hungry and dizziness when full, sudden turmoil disorder.
    • Agitation, insomnia, Heart pain, febrile disease with absence of sweating, febrile disease that does not disperse, injury by cold leading to hands and feet counterflow cold, visual dizziness.
    • Lumbar pain with inability to turn, disorders of the big toe, heat sensation in the soles of the feet.
    • Regulates the Spleen
    • Resolves dampness and damPC-heat
    • Harmonises the middle jiao and clears heat
    SP-3
    Taibai
    (Supreme White)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    Muscle channel

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (Shu-stream),
    Yuan/Base

    Function:
    NA
    On the medial side of the foot in the depression proximal and inferior to the head of the first metatarsal bone.

    Landmark: In the depression located by sliding the fingertip proximally over the side of the ball of the foot.
    • Deficiency of the Spleen and Stomach, heaviness of the body with pain of the bones, oppressive sensation of the four limbs, leg qi, borborygmus, borborygmus with stabbing pain, diarrhoea, undigested food (in the stool), diarrhoea with pus and blood, dysenteric disorder, constipation, haemorrhoids.
    • Cutting pain of the abdomen, pain of the abdomen, distention of the abdomen, distention of the epigastrium, pain of the epigastrium, pain of the epigastrium and Heart, distention of the chest and lateral costal region, vomiting, hunger with no pleasure in eating, sudden turmoil disorder with hands and feet counterflow cold.
    • Febrile disease with fullness and oppression and inability to lie down, febrile disease that begins with heaviness of the head, pain of the forehead, heat in the body with agitation and fullness.
    • Pain of the knee and thigh, joint pains, lumbar pain, atrophy disorder.
    • Tonifies the Spleen and resolves dampness and damPC-heat
    • Harmonises the Spleen and Stomach
    • Regulates qi
    SP-4
    Gongsun
    (Grandfather Grandson)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Luo/Bridge,
    Confluent/Master,
    Confluent/Coupled

    Function:
    Thrusting Vessel,
    Yin Wei Vessel
    On the medial side of the foot, in the depression distal and inferior to the base of the first metatarsal bone.

    Landmark: First locate Taibai SPC-3, then slide the finger proximally along the shaft of the first metatarsal bone until it reaches the depression at the base of the bone (approximately 1 cun).
    • Epigastric pain, vomiting, cold in the Stomach, no pleasure in eating, oesophageal constriction, distention and pain of the abdomen, distention and pain of the umbilical region, cutting pain of the intestines, drum distention, borborygmus, diarrhoea, undigested food (in the stool), dysenteric disorder, blood in the stool, tenesmus, sudden turmoil disorder.
    • Mania-depression, manic raving, insomnia and restlessness, epilepsy, Heart pain, Gall Bladder deficiency, much sighing.
    • Irregular menstruation, gynaecological disorders, retention of the placenta and lochia.
    • Swelling of the head and face, oedema, leg qi, jaundice, malaria, cold malaria.
    • Pain of the heel, heat in the soles of the feet.
    • Fortifies the Spleen and harmonises the middle jiao
    • Regulates qi and resolves dampness
    • Calms the spirit
    • Benefits the Heart and chest
    • Regulates the Penetrating vessel
    SP-5
    Shangqiu
    (Shang Mound)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Kurchashira

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (Jing-river),
    Five Element (Child)

    Function:
    NA
    On the medial side of the ankle, in the depression which lies at the junction of straight lines drawn along the anterior and inferior borders of the medial malleolus.
    • Spleen deficiency, indolence, somnolence, lethargy with desire to lie down, abdominal distention, borborygmus, watery diarrhoea, undigested food (in the stool), constipation, cold pain in the epigastrium, excessive eating, chills and fever with vomiting, coughing and diarrhoea in children with no desire to eat, swelling of the face, jaundice, yellow face.
    • Stiffness and pain of the root of the tongue, impaired speech, cough, infertility, haemorrhoids, shan disorder.
    • Mania-depression, agitation with thirst, excessive thinking, propensity to laughter, nightmares, melancholy Heart, cold body with much sighing, chronic childhood fright wind, childhood fright epilepsy.
    • Pain and contraction of the sinews, lockjaw, ankle pain, pain of the inner thigh/ bone painful obstruction, heavy body with painful joints, hemiplegia.
    • Fortifies the Spleen and resolves dampness
    • Benefits the sinews and bones
    • Calms the spirit
    SP-6
    Sanyinjiao
    (Three Yin Intersection)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    Menstruation channel,
    Lactation channel

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    Apana (Vaata)

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the medial side of the lower leg, 3 cun superior to the prominence of the medial malleolus, in a depression close to the medial crest of the tibia.

    Landmark: This point is most readily located one handbreadth superior to the prominence of the medial malleolus.
    • Spleen and Stomach deficiency, Spleen deficiency with heavy body, heavy body with heaviness of the four limbs, oedema, borborygmus, diarrhoea, undigested food (in the stool), abdominal distention, cold abdomen, unbearable pain below the umbilicus, pain of the Spleen, fullness and distention of the Heart and abdomen, no desire to eat and drink, vomiting of fluid after eating, sudden turmoil disorder.
    • Irregular menstruation, uterine bleeding, uterine bleeding with dizziness, menorrhagia, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, abdominal (zheng jia) masses in women, leucorrhoea, uterine prolapse.
    • Infertility, restless foetus syndrome, transverse presentation, delayed labour, prolonged or difficult labour, retention of lochia, retention of dead foetus, post-partum dizziness.
    • Seminal emission, seminal emission with dreaming, sexual hyperactivity in men, impotence, pain of the genitals, pain of the penis, contracted testicles, shan disorder, pain due to shan disorder.
    • Difficult urination, enuresis, the five types of painful urinary dysfunction, cloudy urine, white turbidity.
    • Palpitations, insomnia, Gall Bladder deficiency, sudden fright disorder in children.
    • Dizziness, blurred vision, tinnitus, yawning, hypertension.
    • Leg pain, crane knee, damp painful obstruction, atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the lower limbs, hemiplegia, heat in the soles of the feet, shin pain, eczema, urticaria, counterflow cold of the foot and hand.
    • Tonifies the Spleen and Stomach
    • Resolves dampness
    • Harmonises the Liver and tonifies the Kidneys
    • Regulates menstruation and induces labour
    • Harmonises the lower jiao
    • Regulates urination and benefits the genitals
    • Calms the spirit
    • Invigorates blood
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    Single most important distal point in the treatment of any gynaecological, obstetrical or post-partum disorder whether characterised by deficiency of qi, blood, yin, yang or Kidney essence, failure of Spleen qi to hold the blood, or stagnation of qi, blood, dampness, damPC-heat or phlegm. Pregnancy
    SP-7
    Lougu
    (Dripping Valley)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the medial side of the lower leg, 3 cun superior to Sanyinjiao SPC-6, in a depression just posterior to the medial crest of the tibia.

    Landmark: This point is most readily located one handbreadth superior to Sanyinjiao SPC-6
    • Abdominal fullness, borborygmus, diarrhoea, painful belching, wasting of the muscles and flesh despite normal eating and drinking.
    • Oedema, difficult urination, swelling of the ankle.
    • Sadness with counterflow qi, seminal emission.
    • Paralysis of the legs, leg qi, inversion counterflow of the legs and knees, painful obstruction of the knees.
    • Fortifies the Spleen and resolves dampness
    • Promotes urination and disperses swelling
    SP-8
    Diji
    (Earth Pivot)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Xi/Cleft

    Function:
    NA
    On the medial side of the lower leg, 3 cun inferior to Yinlingquan SPC-9, in a depression just posterior to the medial crest of the tibia.

    Landmark: 1. This point is most readily located one handbreadth inferior to Yinlingquan SPC-9.
    2. Alternatively, it may be located at the junction of the upper third and the lower two thirds of a line drawn between the popliteal crease and the prominence of the medial malleolus.
    • Irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhoea, abdominal (zheng jia) masses in women.
    • Distention of the abdomen and lateral costal region, pain of the abdomen, poor appetite, diarrhoea with thin stools, dysenteric disorder, difficult urination, oedema, leucorrhoea, seminal emission, lumbar pain, insufficiency of essence.
    • Regulates menstruation and invigorates blood
    • Harmonises the Spleen and resolves dampness
    • Moderates acute conditions
    SP-9
    Yinlingquan
    (Yin Mound Spring)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (He-sea)

    Function:
    NA
    On the medial side of the lower leg, in a depression in the angle formed by the medial condyle of the tibia and the posterior border of the tibia.

    Landmark: 1. Run the finger in the groove posterior to the medial border of the tibia until it falls into the depression below the tibia1 condyle.
    2. This point lies at the same level as Y anglingquan GB-34.
    • Abdominal distention, cold and pain of the abdomen, pain of the lower abdomen, cutting pain in the middle of the intestines, no desire to eat, jaundice, sudden turmoil disorder, diarrhoea, sudden diarrhoea with undigested food in the stools, dysenteric disorder.
    • Oedema, swelling of the lower limbs, retention of urine, difficult urination, enuresis, qi painful urinary dysfunction.
    • Seminal emission, leucorrhoea, pain of the genitals, shan disorder.
    • Fullness below the Heart, fullness of the lateral costal region, dyspnoea with inability to lie down, heat in the chest, unremitting chills and fever.
    • Lumbar pain, pain and swelling of the knee, painful obstruction of the leg.
    • Regulates the Spleen and resolves dampness
    • Opens and moves the water passages
    • Benefits the lower jiao
    SP-10
    Xuehai
    (Sea of Blood)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Ani

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    2 cun proximal to the superior border of the patella, in the tender depression on the bulge of the vastus medialis muscle, directly above Yinlingquan SPC-9.

    Landmark: 1. Place the heel of your right palm on the inferior border of the patient left patella, with the fingers and thumb fully extended and the thumb at 45" to the index finger. This point is found beneath the tip of the thumb, directly above Yinlingquan SPC-9.
    2. Locate one patella height (2 cun) above the superior border of the patella, in the tender depression directly above Yinlingquan SPC-9.
    • Irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, uterine bleeding, uterine bleeding containing clots, sudden uterine bleeding, post-partum qi and blood deficiency.
    • Urticaria, eczema, erysipelas (cinnabar toxin), herpes zoster, painful hot sores, ulceration and itching of the scrotum, pain and itching of the genitals.
    • Leucorrhoea, the five types of painful urinary dysfunction, qi painful urinary dysfunction, blood painful urinary dysfunction, pain of the inner aspect of the thigh.
    • Invigorates the blood and dispels stasis
    • Cools blood
    • Harmonises menstruation
    • Benefits the skin
    SP-11
    Jimen
    (Winnowing Gate)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the medial side of the upper leg, 6 cun proximal to Xuehai SPC-10, on a line connecting Xuehai SPC-10 with Chongmen SPC-12.

    Landmark: 1. Locate two handbreadths superior to Xuehai SPC-10.
    2. Locate midway between the tibiofemoral joint line and Chongmen SPC-12.
    • Painful urinary dysfunction, retention of urine, obstructed urination, enuresis.
    • Eczema of the scrotum, damp itching of the external genitalia, pain and swelling of the inguinal region, pain of the lower abdomen.
    • Regulates urination
    • Drains damp and clears heat
    Deep needling may puncture the femoral artery
    SP-12
    Chongmen
    (Rushing Gate)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    3.5 cun lateral to Qugu CV-2, on the lateral side of the femoral artery.

    Landmark: Palpate to locate the pulsation of the femoral artery, just over one handbreadth lateral to the midline, at the level of the upper border of the pubic symphysis. Locate Chongmen SPC-12 in the depression immediately lateral to this pulsation.
    • Abdominal pain, cold in the abdomen with fullness, abdominal (ji ju) masses, shan disorder, pain of haemorrhoids, foetal qi rushes upward to the Heart leading to difficulty in breathing, difficult lactation.
    • Difficult urination, retention of urine, painful urinary dysfunction, leucorrhoea, sudden turmoil disorder, heat in the body, atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the lower limb.
    • Invigorates blood, regulates qi and alleviates pain
    • Drains damp, clears heat and regulates urination
    Deep needling in a medial direction may puncture the femoral artery, and in a lateral direction, the femoral nerve.
    SP-13
    Fushe
    (Abode of the Fu)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the lower abdomen, 0.7 cun superior and 0.5 cun lateral to Chongmen SPC-12,4 cun lateral to the midline. This point is also defined as lying 4.3 cun inferior to Daheng SPC-15.

    Landmark: The 4 cun line is determined by the palpable lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle at the level of the umbilicus.
    • Abdominal fullness and pain, painful abdominal (ji ju) masses, shan disorder, constipation, pain of the lateral costal region, sudden turmoil disorder, pain of the thigh.
    • Regulates qi and alleviates pain
    In thin patients deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
    SP-14
    Fujie
    (Abdomen Knot)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    The 4 cun line is determined by the palpable lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle at the level of the umbilicus.
    • Periumbilical pain, diarrhoea and dysenteric disorder, diarrhoea due to cold in the abdomen, abdominal distention and constipation, palnful shan disorder.
    • Qi rushes up to the Heart, Heart pain, cough.
    • Warms and benefits the lower jiao
    • Regulates qi and descends rebellion
    In thin patients deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
    SP-15
    Daheng
    (Great Horizontal)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the abdomen, in the depression at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle level with the umbilicus.

    Landmark: This point is normally defined as 4 cun lateral to the midline, and on the abdomen the 4 cun line is located at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle.
    • Lower abdominal pain, cold and pain of the lower abdomen, cold or damp (dong) diarrhoea, dysenteric disorder, constipation, sensation of heat in the hypogastrium with sighing.
    • Propensity to sadness, sighing, inability to raise and move the four limbs, copious sweating.
    • Moves qi and regulates the intestines
    1. In thin patients deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
    2. Deep needling at this point may penetrate a substantially enlarged spleen or liver.
    SP-16
    Fuai
    (Abdomen Sorrow)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the abdomen, in the depression at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle, 3 cun superior to Daheng SPC-15. Note: in some patients with a narrow subcostal angle, this point may fall on the costal margin; the options then are to i. locate more medially, ii. needle transversely on the costal margin, iii. select a different point.

    Landmark: This point is normally defined as 4 cun lateral to the midline, and on the abdomen the 4 cun line is located at the lateral border of the rectus abdominis muscle.
    • Periumbilical pain, cold of the abdomen, undigested food (in the stool), dysenteric disorder, stool containing pus and blood, constipation.
    • Regulates the intestines
    1. in thin patients deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
    2D deep needling at this point may penetrate an enlarged spleen.
    SP-17
    Shidou
    (Food Cavity)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Stanamula

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the lateral side of the chest, in the fifth intercostal space, 6 cun lateral to the midline.

    Landmark: 1. The intercostal spaces are most reliably counted downwards from the second intercostal space which lies immediately below the sternal angle. In males, the nipple almost invariably lies in the fourth intercostal space.
    2. The six cun line is located two cun lateral to the mamillary line.
    • Fullness of the chest and lateral costal region, ceaseless pain of the lateral costal region, abdominal distention, water swelling of the abdomen, oesophageal pain, pain of the diaphragm, belching, vomiting immediately after eating, undigested food (in the stool), borborygmus.
    • Cough, swelling of the breasts, chronic Spleen malaria, jaundice.
    • Dissipates accumulation of food and fluid and promotes digestion
    Perpendicular insertion, especially in thin patients, carries a substantial risk of inducing a pneumothorax.
    SP-18
    Tianxi
    (Heavenly Stream)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the lateral side of the chest, in the fourth intercostal space, 6 cun lateral to the midline.

    Landmark: 1. The intercostal spaces are most reliably counted downwards from the second intercostal space which lies immediately below the sternal angle. In males, the nipple almost invariably lies in the fourth intercostal space.
    2. The six cun line is located two cun lateral to the mamillary line.
    • Fullness and pain of the chest and lateral costal region, shortness of breath, cough, rattling of phlegm in the throat, running piglet qi, hiccup.
    • Breast abscess, failure of breast kilk to flow, insufficient lactation.
    • Regulates and descends qi
    • Benefits the breasts and promotes lactation
    Perpendicular insertion, especially in thin patients, carries a substantial risk of inducing a pneumothorax.
    SP-19
    Xiongxiang
    (Chest Village)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Apastambha

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the lateral side of the chest, in the third intercostal space, 6 cun lateral to the midline.

    Landmark: 1. The intercostal spaces are most reliably counted downwards from the second intercostal space which lies immediately below the sternal angle. In males, the nipple almost invariably lies in the fourth intercostal space.
    2. The six cun line is located two cun lateral to the mamillary line.
    • Fullness of the chest and lateral costal region extending to the back, inability to turn over when lying down, cough, shortness of breath.
    • Regulates and descends qi and unbinds the chest
    Perpendicular insertion, especially in thin patients, carries a substantial risk of inducing a pneumothorax.
    SP-20
    Zhourong
    (Encircling Glory)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Stanarohita

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the lateral side of the chest, in the second intercostal space, 6 cun lateral to the midline.

    Landmark: 1. First locate the costal cartilage of the second rib which is level with the sternal angle, then locate the second intercostal space below it.
    2. The six cun line is located two cun lateral to the mamillary line.
    3. This point lies one intercostal space directly below Zhongfu LU-1.
    • Distention and fullness of the chest and lateral costal region, cough, coughing with copious phlegm or pus, shortness of breath, difficult ingestion, desires to drink fluids.
    • Regulates and descends qi and unbinds the chest
    Perpendicular insertion, especially in thin patients, carries a substantial risk of inducing a pneumothorax.
    SP-21
    Dabao
    (Great Wrapping)


    Meridian:
    Spleen Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Luo/Bridge,
    Exit

    Function:
    NA
    On the mid-axillary line, in the seventh intercostal space. Note: some sources locate this point in the sixth intercostal space.

    Landmark: 1. The intercostal spaces are most reliably counted downwards from the second intercostal space which lies immediately below the sternal angle. In males, the nipple almost invariably lies in the fourth intercostal space.
    2. The mid-axillary line is drawn vertically down from the apex of the axilla (Jiquan HT-1).
    • Pain of the whole body, weariness of the four limbs, flaccidity of the limbs, flaccidity of the hundred joints.
    • Cough, dyspnoea, chest pain, pain in the chest and lateral costal region on respiration, distention and fullness of the lateral costal region.
    • Regulates qi and blood and firms the sinews and joints
    • Unbinds the chest and benefits the lateral costal region
    Perpendicular insertion, especially in thin patients, carries a substantial risk of inducing a pneumothorax.
    GB-1
    Tongziliao
    (Pupil Crevice)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Apanga

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Entry

    Function:
    NA
    In the hollow on the lateral side of the orbital margin, approximately 0.5 cun lateral to the outer canthus.
    • Eye pain, redness, swelling and pain of the eyes, lacrimation, lacrimation on exposure to wind, itching of the eyes, redness and itching of the inner or outer canthus, short sightedness, superficial visual obstruction, dimness of vision, night blindness.
    • Deviation of the mouth and eye, throat painful obstruction, headache, pain of the supraorbital ridge.
    • Benefits the eyes, eliminates wind and clears heat.
    According to several modern texts, this point is contraindicated to moxibustion
    GB-2
    Tinghui
    (Meeting of Hearing)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    In the hollow between the intertragic notch posteriorly and the condyloid process of the mandible anteriorly. Locate this point with the mouth wide open.

    Landmark: In order to locate this point, ask the patient to open the mouth so that the condyloid process of the mandible slides forwards to reveal the depression.
    • Tinnitus, deafness, redness, swelling, pain and purulent discharge from the ear, itching of the ear.
    • Mumps, toothache, windstroke, deviation of the mouth and eye, pain of the mandibular joint, dislocation of the jaw, difficulty in masticating, disorientation
    • Benefits the ears, eliminates wind and clears heat
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    GB-3
    Shangguan
    (Above the Joint)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    Anterior to the ear, in a hollow above the upper border of the zygomatic arch, directly superior to Xiaguan ST-7.

    Landmark: First locate Xiaguan ST-7 at the lower border of the zygomatic arch, in the depression anterior to the condyloid process of the mandible. Then run the palpating finger superiorly over the zygomatic arch into the hollow.
    • Deafness, tinnitus, purulent discharge from the ear, dimness of vision, pain of the face, toothache of the upper jaw, stiffness of the lips.
    • Headache, aversion to wind and cold, chills and fever, hemiplegia, deviation of the mouth and eye, lockjaw, tetany leading to bone pain, clonic spasm.
    • Eliminates wind and benefits the ears
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    Traditionally emphasised that deep needling should be avoided at this point.
    GB-4
    Hanyan
    (Jaw Serenity)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Shringataka

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    In the temporal region, within the hairline, one quarter of the distance between Touwei ST-8 and Qubin GB-7.
    • One-sided headache, head wind (with pain at bilateral Taiyang M-HN-9), headache with heat in the body, visual dizziness, pain and redness of the outer canthus.
    • Tinnitus, earache.
    • Clonic spasm, lockjaw, epilepsy, deviation of the mouth and eye, toothache, sneezing.
    • Neck pain, wrist pain, inability to flex the wrist, joint wind with sweating.
    • Eliminates wind and clears heat
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    GB-5
    Xuanlu
    (Suspended Skull)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    In the temporal region, within the hairline, half the distance between Touwei ST-8 and Qubin GB-7.
    • One-sided headache extending to the outer canthus, pain of the outer canthus, headache.
    • Toothache, pain, swelling and redness of the skin of the face, nosebleed, incessant turbid nasal discharge, rhinitis, febrile disease with agitation and fullness and absence of sweating.
    • Expels wind and clears heat
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    GB-6
    Xuanli
    (Suspended Hair)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    In the temporal region, within the hairline, three quarters of the distance between Touwei ST-8 and Qubin GB-7.
    • One-sided headache, one-sided headache extending to the outer canthus, pain of the outer canthus, sneezing, tinnitus, swelling and redness of the skin of the face.
    • Febrile disease with absence of sweating, agitation of the Heart with no desire to eat, heat in the middle jiao.
    • Expels wind and clears heat
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    GB-7
    Qubin
    (Crook of the Temple)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    In the temporal region, within the hairline, level with and one finger-breadth anterior to Jiaosun TH-20.

    Landmark: Jiaosun TH-20 is located directly level with the apex of the ear, when the ear is folded forwards. Fold the ear so that the posterior part of the upper helix directly covers the anterior part of the upper helix. Take care not to push the whole of the ear forwards.
    • Headache, swelling of the cheek and submandibular region, lockjaw, loss of speech, deviation of the mouth and eye.
    • Vomiting, stiff neck with inability to turn the head.
    • Eliminates wind and benefits the mouth and jaw
    GB-8
    Shuaigu
    (Leading Val ley)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    In the temporal region, in the slight depression 1 cun directly above the apex of the ear.

    Landmark: Fold the ear forward to define the apex. Fold the ear so that the posterior part of the upper helix directly covers the anterior part of the upper helix. Take care not to push the whole of the ear forwards.
    • One-sided headache, heaviness of the head, head wind, pain at the corner of the forehead (the area of Touwei ST-8), deviation of the mouth and eye, acute and chronic childhood fright wind, dizziness, eye disorders.
    • Incessant vomiting, cold Stomach, phlegm qi diaphragm pain, inability to eat, agitation and fullness on eating or drinking, injury by alcohol with vomiting, phlegm dizziness, oedema.
    • Eliminates wind, benefits the head and alleviates pain
    • Harmonises the diaphragm and Stomach and alleviates vomiting
    • Treats alcohol intoxication
    GB-9
    Tianchong
    (Heavenly Rushing)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    Above the ear, in the depression 0.5 cun posterior to Shuaigu GB-8.
    • Headache, tinnitus, damp itching of the ear, toothache, swelling and pain of the gums, goitre.
    • Propensity to fear and fright, fright palpitations, epilepsy, tetany, madness.
    • Clears Gall Bladder channel heat
    • Calms the spirit and pacifies fright
    GB-10
    Fubai
    (Floating White)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    Posterior to the ear, along a curved line drawn from Tianchong GB-9 to Wangu GB-12 running within the hairline and more or less parallel to the line of the rim of the ear, in a depression about one third of the distance between Tianchong GB-9 and Wangu GB-12.
    • Headache, heaviness of the head, chills and fever, toothache, deafness, tinnitus.
    • Stiffness and pain of the neck, goitre, swelling and pain of the neck, throat painful obstruction.
    • Fullness of the chest with dyspnoea, chest pain, cough with expectoration of phlegm and foam.
    • Pain of the shoulder and arm, inability to raise the arm, flaccidity of the legs with inability to walk.
    • Clears the head and benefits the neck region
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    GB-11
    Touqiaoyin
    (Yin Portals of the Head)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    Posterior to the ear, along a curved line drawn from Tianchong GB-9 to Wangu GB-12 running within the hairline and more or less parallel to the line of the rim of the ear, in a depression slightly greater than two thirds of the distance between Tianchong GB-9 and Wangu GB-12.
    • Headache, dizziness, eye pain, ear pain, tinnitus, deafness, stiff tongue, bleeding from the root of the tongue, nauseating bitter taste in the mouth.
    • Stiffness and pain of the neck, goitre, throat painful obstruction.
    • Pain of the lateral costal region, cough, absence of sweating, contraction of the sinews of the four limbs, bone taxation, agitation and heat of the hands and feet.
    • Clears the head and benefits the sense organs
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    GB-12
    Wangu
    (Mastoid Process)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    In the depression just posterior and inferior to the mastoid process.

    Landmark: Place a finger on the prominence of the mastoid process then slide it posteriorly into the depression.
    • Headache, head wind with pain behind the ear, shaking of the head, stiffness and pain of the neck with inability to turn the head.
    • Toothache, swelling of the cheek radiating to the ear, pain of the ear, throat painful obstruction.
    • Hemiplegia, deviation of the mouth and eye, clenched jaw, withering and contraction of the muscles around the mouth, weakness and flaccidity of the legs, atrophy disorder of the arms and legs, malaria, sweating with no aversion to cold.
    • Epilepsy, mania, agitation of the Heart, insomnia, dark urine.
    • Eliminates wind, benefits the head and alleviates pain
    • Calms the spirit
    GB-13
    Benshen
    (Root of the Spirit)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the forehead, 0.5 cun within the anterior hairline, two thirds of the distance between Shenting GV-24 and Touwei ST-8.

    Landmark: Some sources locate this point on the line directly above the outer canthus of the eye.
    • Headache, visual dizziness, stiffness and pain of the neck, pain of the chest and lateral costal region with inability to turn the body.
    • Epilepsy, childhood fright epilepsy, vomiting of foamy saliva, windstroke, hemiplegia, deviation of the mouth and eyes.
    • Eliminates wind, resolves phlegm and treats epilepsy
    GB-14
    Yangbai
    (Yang White)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Avarta

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the forehead, 1 cun superior to the middle of the eyebrow, directly above the pupil when the eyes are looking straight ahead.

    Landmark: The distance between the glabella and the anterior hairline at the midline is measured as 3 cun.
    • Pain of the forehead, pain of the supraorbital ridge, head wind, wind-cold headache, dizziness, pain of the face.
    • Eye pain, lacrimation on exposure to wind, night blindness, short sightedness.
    • Deviation of the mouth and eye, upward staring eyes, drooping of the eyelid, twitching of the eyelids, itching of the eyelids, pain and itching of the pupils.
    • Inability to get warm despite wearing much clothing, shivering and aversion cold on the back.
    • Eliminates wind, benefits the head and alleviates pain
    • Benefits the eyes
    GB-15
    Toulinqi
    (Head Governor of Tears)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Shringataka

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the forehead, directly above Yangbai GB-14,0.5 cun within the anterior hairline, midway between Shenting GV-24 and Touwei ST-8.

    Landmark: The distance between the anterior and posterior hairlines in the midline is measured as 12 cun. If the anterior hairline is indistinct, the distance is measured as 15 cun between the glabella [point Yintang (M-HN-3)] and the posterior hairline; the location of the anterior hairline would thus be defined as one fifth of this distance. If the posterior hairline is indistinct, it can be measured as 1 cun inferior to Fengfu GV-16 which lies immediately below the external occipital protuberance. Note that the line of the anterior hairline away from the midline usually curves somewhat posteriorly, and this should be taken. into account when locating the Gall Bladder points on the scalp (Toulinqi GB-15 to Naokong GB-19).
    • Nasal congestion, nasal congestion with aversion to cold.
    • Headache, head wind, visual dizziness, pain of the occiput and forehead, pain of the supraorbital ridge.
    • Redness and pain of the eyes, superficial visual obstruction, lacrimation on exposure to wind, pain at the outer canthus.
    • Windstroke, epilepsy, loss of consciousness, malaria, pain of the supraclavicular fossa, swelling of the axilla.
    • Eliminates wind, benefits the head and alleviates pain
    • Benefits the nose and eyes
    GB-16
    Muchuang
    (Window of the Eye)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    Toulinqi GB-15 and Fengchi GB-20, following the contour of the cranium, 1.5 cun posterior to Toulinqi GB-15.

    Landmark: 1. See location note for Toulinqi GB-15.
    2. First locate Toulinqi GB-15 0.5 cun posterior to the hairline and then locate Chengling GB-18 directly lateral to Baihui GV-20, on the line of the Gall Bladder channel. Muchuang GB-16 is then located one third of the distance between Toulinqi GB-15 and Chengling GB-18
    • Visual dizziness, superficial visual obstruction, redness, swelling and pain of the eyes, short sightedness, all kinds of eye diseases.
    • Headache, swelling of the head and face, toothache of the upper jaw, swelling of the gums, nasal congestion, epilepsy.
    • Aversion to cold, chills and fever with absence of sweating.
    • Benefits the eyes
    • Eliminates wind and alleviates pain
    GB-17
    Zhengying
    (Upright Nutrition)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    In the parietal region, on a curved line drawn between Toulinqi GB-15 and Fengchi GB-20, following the contour of the cranium, 1.5 cun posterior to Muchuang GB-16.

    Landmark: 1. See location note for Toulinqi GB-15.
    2. First locate Toulinqi GB-15,0.5 cun posterior to the hairline, and then locate Chengling GB-18 directly lateral to Baihui GV-20, on the line of the Gall Bladder channel. Zhengying GB-17 is then located two thirds of the distance between Toulinqi GB-15 and Chengling GB-18.
    • Headache, one-sided headache, toothache of the upper jaw.
    • Visual dizziness, dizziness due to phlegm-fluid, ceaseless vomiting, nausea, stiff neck, stiffness of the lips, aversion to wind and cold, aversion to the sound of people talking.
    • Benefits the head and alleviates pain
    • Pacifies the Stomach
    GB-18
    Chengling
    (Support Spirit)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    In the parietal region, on a curved line drawn between Toulinqi GB-15 and Fengchi GB-20, following the contour of the cranium, 1.5 cun posterior to Zhengying GB-17.

    Landmark: Locate directly lateral to Baihui GV-20, on the line of the Gall Bladder channel (2.25 cun from the midline).
    • Headache, brain wind, dizziness, eye pain.
    • Rhinitis and nosebleed, nasal congestion, dyspnoea, cough, aversion to wind and cold.
    • Benefits the head and alleviates pain
    • Benefits the nose and descends Lung qi
    GB-19
    Naolong
    (Brain Hollow)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    In the occipital region, directly above Fengchi GB-20, level with Naohu GV-17.

    Landmark: 1. Locate Naohu GV-17 1.5 cun directly above Fengfu GV-16, in the depression directly superior to the external occipital protuberance.
    2. Alternatively (if the external occipital protuberance is indistinct) locate Naokong GB-19 one quarter of the distance between Fengchi GB-20 and Chengling GB-18.
    • Headache, head wind, brain wind, one-sided headache and heaviness of the head, stiffness and pain of the neck with inability to turn the head, wind dizziness.
    • Redness, swelling and pain of the eyes, deafness and tinnitus, pain of the nose, nasal congestion, nosebleed.
    • Fright palpitations, mania depression disorder, taxation disorders with emaciation, heat in the body.
    • Benefits the head and alleviates pain
    • Pacifies wind and clears the sense organs
    GB-20
    Fengchi
    (Wind Pool)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Sira Matrika

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    Below the occiput, approximately midway between Fengfu GV-16 and Wangu GB-12, in the hollow between the origins of the sternomastoid and trapezius muscles.

    Landmark: i. Locate close to the base of the skull; ii. This point is normally located as the most tender point of the hollow.
    • Headache, head wind, one-sided and generalised headache, dizziness, visual dizziness, hypertension, hemiplegia, deviation of the mouth and eye, goitre, lockjaw.
    • Insomnia, loss of memory, epilepsy, loss of speech following windstroke.
    • Injury by cold, injury by cold with absence of sweating, chills and fever, warm febrile disease with absence of sweating, malaria, throat painful obstruction, swelling of the face, urticaria.
    • Redness and pain of the eyes, redness and pain of the inner canthus, blurred vision, lacrimation (especially on exposure to wind), night blindness, dimness of vision.
    • Nosebleed, rhinitis, nasal congestion and discharge.
    • Deafness, tinnitus, blocked ears.
    • Stiffness and pain of the neck with inability to turn the head, pain of the shoulder and upper back, pain of the lumbar spine, crooked lumbar spine leading to flaccidity and lack of strength in the sinews of the neck.
    • Eliminates wind
    • Benefits the head and eyes
    • Clears the sense organs
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    Single most important point in the treatment of headache, whatever the aetiology and whichever the involved channels. Deeper needling may damage the spinal cord; iii. Joined by through-needling to contralateral Fengchi GB-20,2 to 3 cun.
    GB-21
    Jianjing
    (Shoulder Well)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Sira Matrika,
    Amsa

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    Midway between Dazhui GV-14 and the tip of the acromion, at the crest of the trapezius muscle.

    Landmark: i. The crest refers to the highest point of the trapezius muscle on the sagittal (anterior-posterior) plane; ii. This point is normally located at the point of maximum tenderness.
    • Stiffness and pain of the neck, pain of the shoulder and back, inability to raise the hand and arm, herniplegia.
    • Loss of speech following windstroke, windstroke, wind-taxation, the five taxations and the seven injuries, steaming bone disorder, Kidney deficiency lumbar pain.
    • Cough and dyspnoea, rebellion of qi, mania-depression, redness of the face.
    • Scrofula, goitre, leg qi ascending to attack the Heart, pain of the Spleen.
    • Difficult or prolonged labour, inversion counterflow of the arms and legs following miscarriage, retention of the placenta, uterine bleeding.
    • Breast pain, breast abscess, breast milk does not flow, furuncles and carbuncles.
    • Regulates qi, activates the channel and alleviates pain
    • Transforms and lowers phlegm and dissipates nodules
    • Benefits the breasts and expedites delivery
    Pregnancy
    Perpendicular insertion, especially in thin patients, carries a substantial risk of inducing a pneumothorax
    GB-22
    Yuanye
    (Armpit Abyss)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the mid-axillary line, in the fifth intercostal space, approximately 3 cun inferior to the apex of the axilla, at the level of the nipple.

    Landmark: 1. The mid-axillary line is drawn vertically down from the apex of the axilla (Jiquan HT-1).
    2.. First locate the costal cartilage of the second rib which is level with the sternal angle, locate the second intercostal space below it and then locate the fifth intercostal space, three spaces below that; in males the nipple lies in the fourth intercostal space.
    3. Some sources locate this point in the fourth intercostal space.
    • Cough, fullness of the chest, chills and fever, pain of the lateral costal region, swelling of the axilla, scrofula of the axilla, sabre lumps.
    • Pain of the shoulder and arm, inability to raise the arm.
    • Regulates qi and unbinds the chest
    • Benefits the axilla
    Deep or perpendicular needling may induce a pneumothorax
    According to several classical texts, this point is contraindicated to moxibustion
    GB-23
    Zhejin
    (Flank Sinews)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    Below the axilla in the fifth intercostal space, 1 cun anterior to Yuanye GB-22, approximately at the level of the nipple.
    • Sudden fullness of the chest, pain of the lateral costal region, dyspnoea, asthma, scrofula, pain of the shoulder and arm.
    • Sighing and tendency to sadness, insomnia, heat of the lower abdomen.
    • Vomiting, acid regurgitation, much spittle, loss of use of the four limbs.
    • Unbinds the chest and lowers rebellion
    • Regulates qi in the three jiao
    Deep or perpendicular needling may induce a pneumothorax.
    GB-24
    Riyue
    (Sun and Moon)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Mu/Front

    Function:
    Gallbladder organ
    On the anterior chest wall, in the seventh intercostal space, directly below the nipple, 4 cun lateral to the midline.

    Landmark: First locate the costal cartilage of the second rib which is level with the sternal angle, locate the second intercostal space below it and then locate the seventh intercostal space, five spaces below that. In males the nipple lies in the fourth intercostal space.
    • Distention, fullness and pain of the lateral costal region, pain of the ribs, epigastric pain, abdominal distention, jaundice.
    • Vomiting, much spittle, acid regurgitation, hiccup.
    • Sighing with tendency to sadness, heat of the lower abdomen, heat of the hypogastrium, loss of use of the four limbs.
    • Benefits the Gall Bladder and spreads Liver qi
    • Lowers rebellious qi and harmonises the middle jiao
    • Resolves damPC-heat
    Deep or perpendicular needling may induce a pneumothorax.
    GB-25
    Jingmen
    (Capital Gate)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Mu/Front

    Function:
    Kidney organ
    Below the lateral aspect of the ribcage, anterior and inferior to the free end of the 12th rib.

    Landmark: To locate the free end of the twelfth rib, first place the entire hand on the upper abdomen and with gentle finger pressure palpate downwards along the costal margin, until the end of the eleventh rib is located just above the level of the umbilicus. Then palpate further along the inferior margin of the ribcage until the free end of the twelfth rib is located in the lateral lumbar region.
    • Borborygmus, cold or damp (dong) diarrhoea, abdominal distention, vomiting, pain of the lower abdomen, painful shan disorder.
    • Difficult urination, dark urine, swelling of the face, failure of the water passages to flow, desire to drink.
    • Chills and fever, disgruntled with inability to catch the breath.
    • Weakness of the spine, lumbar pain with inability to stand for long, pain of the lateral costal region and back, pain of the inner aspect of the shoulder blade, pain of the hip.
    • Tonifies the Kidneys and regulates the water passages
    • Fortifies the Spleen and regulates the intestines
    • Strengthens the lumbar region
    In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
    GB-26
    Daimai
    (Girdling Vessel)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Parshvasandhi

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    Directly below Zhangmen LV-13 (anterior and inferior to the free end of the eleventh rib), level with the umbilicus.

    Landmark: 1. To locate the free end of the eleventh rib, place the entire hand on the upper abdomen and with gentle finger pressure palpate downwards along the costal margin, until the end of the eleventh rib is located just above the level of the umbilicus.
    2. The free end of the eleventh rib usually lies on or near the mid-axillary line which is drawn vertically down from the apex of the axilla (Jiquan HT-1).
    • Red and white leucorrhoea, disorders of menstruation, irregular menstruation, amenorrhoea, infertility, uterine prolapse, hardness and pain of the hypogastrium in women, lower abdominal pain in women.
    • Unendurable pain of the lateral costal region which radiates to the back, pain of the lateral costal region, lumbar pain, shan disorder, tenesmus, clonic spasm.
    • Regulates the Girdling vessel and drains dampness
    • Regulates menstruation and stops leucorrhoea
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    In thin subjects, deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity
    GB-27
    Wushu
    (Five Pivots)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    In the depression just anterior to the anterior superior iliac spine, approximately level with Guanyuan CV-4 (3 cun below the umbilicus).

    Landmark: To locate the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS), place the hand on the lateral part of the lower abdomen, below the level of the umbilicus. The ASIS is then readily palpated as the pronounced bony prominence. Alternatively, follow the ridge of the iliac crest and palpate the ASIS as its anterior prominence.
    • Uterine prolapse, red and white leucorrhoea, irregular menstruation.
    • Lower abdominal pain, cold shan disorder in men, abdominal pain due to retraction of the testicles, constipation, tenesmus, pain of the back, lumbar region and ilium, clonic spasm.
    • Regulates the Girdling vessel
    • Regulates the lower jiao and transforms stagnation
    GB-28
    Weidao
    (Linking Path)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    0.5 cun anterior and inferior to Wushu GB-27

    Landmark: To locate the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS), place the hand on the lateral part of the lower abdomen, below the level of the umbilicus. The ASIS is then readily palpated as the pronounced bony prominence. Alternatively, follow the ridge of the iliac crest and palpate the ASIS as its anterior prominence.
    • Uterine prolapse, irregular menstruation, leucorrhoea.
    • Pain of the back and ilium, lower abdominal pain, shan disorder.
    • No pleasure in eating, vomiting.
    • Regulates the Girdling vessel
    • Regulates the lower jiao and transforms stagnation
    GB-29
    Juliao
    (Stationary Crevice)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    Reproductive fluid channel,
    Urinary channel,
    Menstruation channel

    Part of Marma:
    Kukundara,
    Nitamba

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the lateral aspect of the hip joint, at the midpoint of a line drawn between the anterior superior iliac spine and the prominence of the greater trochanter.

    Landmark: 1. To locate the anterior superior iliac spine see Wushu GB-27.
    2. To accurately palpate the prominence of the greater trochanter place one hand over the lateral aspect of the hip joint at the level of the perineum, and with the other hand rotate the foot in order to feel the movement of the prominence of the greater trochanter.
    3. Alternatively, flex the hip joint and locate Juliao GB-29 at the lateral end of the crease thus formed.
    • Pain of the back and leg, lumbar pain radiating to the lower abdomen, hip pain radiating to the groin, weakness and paralysis of the leg, sciatica, shan disorder, pain of the front of the shoulder radiating to the chest, inability to raise the arm.
    • Oedema, vomiting, diarrhoea.
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    • Benefits the hip joint
    GB-30
    Huantiao
    (Jumping Circle)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Ma Danyang/12 Star Points

    Function:
    NA
    On the postero-lateral aspect of the hip joint, one third of the distance between the prominence of the greater trochanter and the sacro-coccygeal hiatus (Yaoshu GV-2).

    Landmark: 1. This point may most readily be located (and needled) with the patient lying on their side.
    2. To accurately palpate the prominence of the greater trochanter place one hand over the lateral aspect of the hip joint at the level of the perineum, and with the other hand rotate the foot in order to feel the movement of the prominence of the greater trochanter; iii. The sacro-coccygeal hiatus is located in-between the cornua of the sacrum and coccyx, in the depression inferior to the fourth sacral spinous process if this is palpable. Note, however, that the sacrococcygeal hiatus may sometimes extend as high as the level of the third sacral foramina
    • Pain of the buttock, pain or sprain of the hip and leg, sciatica, atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the lower limb, hemiplegia, cold-wind-damp painful obstruction, numbness of the leg, inability to flex and extend the knee, contraction and pain of the thigh and knee, pain of the lumbar region and lateral costal region, pain of the lumbar region and leg, leg qi.
    • Urticaria, eczema.
    • Lower back pain, rheumatism aggravated by cold or damp, pain running down from thigh to calf.
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    • Benefits the hip joint and leg
    • Dispels wind-damp
    Single most important point for the treatment of sciatica.
    GB-31
    Fengshi
    (Wind Market)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Ani

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the lateral aspect of the thigh, directly below the greater trochanter, 7 cun superior to the popliteal crease.

    Landmark: 1. To palpate the prominence of the greater trochanter place a hand over the lateral aspect of the hip joint at the level of the perineum.
    2. The distance between the prominence of the greater trochanter and the popliteal crease is 19 cun, thus Fengshi GB-31 is located at the tender point approximately 1 cun proximal to the junction of the upper two thirds and lower third of this line.
    3. This point is traditionally described as being located where the tip of the middle finger reaches when a person stands erect with their arms extended by their sides, although the significant differences found in body proportions render this unreliable.
    • Hemiplegia, atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the lower limb, cold painful obstruction, sciatica, leg qi, numbness of the leg, weakness and feebleness of the legs, heavy sensation of the legs with difficulty in sitting, contraction and pain of the knees.
    • Itching of the whole body, urticaria.
    • Eliminates wind
    • Alleviates itching
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    GB-32
    Zhongdu
    (Middle Ditch)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the lateral aspect of the thigh, 2 cun inferior to Fengshi GB-31.

    Landmark: 1. First locate Fengshi GB-31 (see above) and then locate Zhongdu GB-32, 2 cun inferior to it.
    2. The distance between the prominence of the greater trochanter and the popliteal crease is 19 cun, thus Zhongdu GB-32 is located at the tender point just proximal to the junction of the upper three quarters and the lower quarter of this line.
    • Atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the lower limb, sinew painful obstruction with numbness, numbness, hemiplegia, sciatica, pain of the back and hip, cold qi residing in the muscles and sinews.
    • Urticaria.
    • Expels wind, damp and cold
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    GB-33
    Xiyangguan
    (Knee Yang Gate)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    On the lateral side of the knee, in the depression above the lateral epicondyle of the femur, between the femur and tendon of biceps femnrk.

    Landmark: Starting above the knee joint, run a finger down the lateral aspect of the thigh in the groove between the femur and the tendon of biceps femoris, until the finger falls into the depression just proximal to the lateral epicondyle of the femur.
    • Redness, swelling and pain of the lateral aspect of the knee joint, inability to flex and extend the knee, wind painful obstruction with numbness, painful obstruction and numbness of the lower leg, leg qi.
    • Relaxes the sinews and benefits the joints
    • Dispels wind-damp
    According to several classical texts, this point is contraindicated to moxibustion
    GB-34
    Yangglingquan
    (Yang Mound Spring)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Janu

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (He-sea),
    Hui Meeting/Gathering,
    Lower He Sea,
    Ma Danyang/12 Star Points

    Function:
    Sinews,
    Gallbladder organ
    Below the lateral aspect of the knee, in the tender depression approximately 1 cun anterior and inferior to the head of the fibula.

    Landmark: To avoid confusing the head of the fibula with the tibia1 condyle, slide your fingers up the lateral aspect of the lower leg until the soft tissue of the musculature gives way to the bony prominence of the head of the fibula.
    • Disorders of the sinews, contraction of the sinews, contraction and pain of the calf muscles in sudden turmoil disorder, contraction of the sinews of the foot, stiffness and tightness of the muscles and joints, numbness, hemiplegia, stiffness of the neck and shoulders, pain of the elbow, atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the lower limb, swelling, pain and redness of the knee, cold painful obstruction of the hip and knee, sciatica, numbness and pain of the thigh and knee, coldness and pallor of the feet, leg qi.
    • Diseases of the Gall Bladder, fullness and pain of the lateral costal region, frequent sighing, fear of people as if about to be apprehended, constipation, enuresis, epilepsy.
    • Bitter taste in the mouth, dry throat, vomiting, jaundice, chills and fever, malaria, swelling of the face and head, hypertension.
    • Swollen knee accompanied by numbness, one-sided pains due to cold, inability to raise the foot, sitting or lying as someone old and weak.
    • Benefits the sinews and joints
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    • Spreads Liver qi and benefits the lateral costal region
    • Clears Liver and Gall Bladder damPC-heat
    • Harmonises shaoyang
    Single most important point to treat disorders of gallbladder.
    GB-35
    Yangjiao
    (Yang Intersection)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Xi/Cleft

    Function:
    Yang Wei Vessel
    On the lateral aspect of the lower leg, 7 cun superior to the prominence of the lateral malleolus, in the depression at the posterior border of the fibula.

    Landmark: 1. The distance between the tip of the lateral malleolus and the popliteal crease is 16 cun; locate Yangjiao GB-35 one cun distal to the midpoint of this line
    2. Above the region of Xuanzhong GB-39, the fibula is not easily palpable because it is covered by the peroneus brevis muscle; therefore feel for the posterior border of the fibula above the malleolus where it is easily palpable and extend a line towards the head of the fibula.
    • Swelling and pain of the knee, atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the lower limb, cold painful obstruction, contraction of the sinews in sudden turmoil disorder.
    • Mania induced by fright, fullness, distention and pain of the chest and lateral costal region, swelling of the face and eyes, throat painful obstruction.
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    • Regulates Gall Bladder qi and calms the spirit
    GB-36
    Waiqiu
    (Outer Hill)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Xi/Cleft

    Function:
    NA
    On the lateral aspect of the lower leg, 7 cun superior to the prominence of the lateral malleolus, at the anterior border of the fibula.

    Landmark: 1. The distance between the tip of the lateral malleolus and the popliteal crease is 16 cun; locate Waiqiu GB-36 one cun distal to the midpoint of this line.
    2. Above the region of Xuanzhong GB-39, the fibula is not easily palpable because it is covered by the peroneus brevis muscle; therefore feel for the anterior border of the fibula above the ankle joint where it is easily palpable and extend a line towards the head of the fibula.
    • Distention of the chest and lateral costal region, pigeon chest in children, headache, mania, abdominal pain, rabies.
    • Atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the lower limb, pain of the skin, cold damp leg qi, cold sensation and stiffness and pain of the nape and neck, aversion to wind-cold.
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    • Clears heat and detoxifies poison
    GB-37
    Guangming
    (Bright Light)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Luo/Bridge

    Function:
    NA
    On the lateral aspect of the lower leg, 5 cun superior to the prominence of the lateral malleolus, at the anterior border of the fibula.

    Landmark: 1. The distance between the tip of the lateral malleolus and the popliteal crease is 16 cun; locate Guangming GB-37 just distal to the junction of the upper two thirds and lower third of this line.
    2. Above the region of Xuanzhong GB-39, the fibula is not easily palpable because it is covered by the peroneus brevis muscle; therefore feel for the anterior border of the fibula above the ankle joint where it is easily palpable and extend a line towards the head of the fibula.
    • Eye pain, night blindness, itching of the eyes, long sightedness, short sightedness.
    • One-sided headache, grinding of the teeth, distention and pain of the breast, febrile disease with absence of sweating, sudden mania.
    • Knee pain, pain of the lower legs with inability to stand for long, atrophy disorder of the legs with difficulty in standing after sitting, atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the lower limb with numbness, numbness of the body, heat and pain of the lower leg.
    • Benefits the eyes
    • Dispels wind-damp, activates the channel and alleviates pain
    GB-38
    Yangfu
    (Yang Assistance)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (Jing-river),
    Five Element (Child)

    Function:
    NA
    On the lateral aspect of the lower leg, 4 cun superior to the prominence of the lateral malleolus, at the anterior border of the fibula.

    Landmark: 1. The distance between the tip of the lateral malleolus and the popliteal crease is 16 cun; locate Yangfu GB-38 at the junction of the upper three quarters and lower quarter of this line.
    2. Above the region of Xuanzhong GB-39, the fibula is not easily palpable because it is covered by the peroneus brevis muscle; therefore feel for the anterior border of the fibula above the ankle joint where it is easily palpable and extend a line towards the head of the fibula.
    • One-sided headache, pain of the outer canthus, throat painful obstruction.
    • Bitter taste in the mouth, sighing, pain of the chest and lateral costal region, chills and fever, sweating with cold shivering, pain in the middle of the supraclavicular fossa, swelling and pain of the axilla, scrofula, malaria, blue-green (qing) complexion.
    • Wind painful obstruction with numbness, wandering pain of the joints, hemiplegia, contracted sinews, pain of the hundred joints, pain and numbness of the lateral side of the lower limb, lower limb painful obstruction, oedema below the knee, leg qi, sensation in the lumbar region as if sitting in water, severe lumbar pain, lumbar pain like a small hammer in the middle of the back, pain of the lateral malleolus.
    • Clears Gall Bladder channel heat
    • Harmonises shaoyang
    • Benefits the sinews and bones
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    GB-39
    Xuanzhong
    (Suspended Bell)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Gulpha

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Hui Meeting/Gathering

    Function:
    Marrow
    Above the ankle joint, 3 cun superior to the prominence of the lateral malleolus, between the posterior border of the fibula and the tendons of peroneus longus and brevis.

    Landmark: Locate one handbreadth proximal to the prominence of the lateral malleolus.
    • Stiffness and pain of the neck, atrophy disorder, chronic painful obstruction, wind-taxation with heaviness of the body, injury by cold pathogen leading to taxation, deficiency-taxation, contracted sinews and pain of the bones, hip pain, numbness and pain of the knee and lower leg, sciatica, leg qi, sprain of the ankle joint, flaccidity of the foot.
    • Hemiplegia, headache, dizziness, throat painful obstruction, nosebleed, dryness of the nose.
    • Distention and fullness of the chest and abdomen, counterflow qi and cough, soreness and pain of the lateral costal region, swelling of the axilla.
    • Fullness of the abdomen in children with inability to eat or drink, fullness and distention of the Heart and abdomen, heat in the Stomach, no pleasure in eating, watery diarrhoea.
    • Injury by cold leading to heat with persistent fever, haemorrhoids, agitation and fullness, mania, anxiety, indignation and anger, the five types of painful urinary dysfunction.
    • Benefits the sinews and bones
    • Benefits the neck
    • Dispels wind-damp
    • Clears Gall Bladder fire
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    GB-40
    Qiuxu
    (Mound of Ruins)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Yuan/Base

    Function:
    NA
    At the ankle joint, in the depression anterior and inferior to the lateral malleolus.

    Landmark: Locate at the junction of lines drawn along the anterior and inferior borders of the lateral malleolus.
    • Distention and pain of the chest and lateral costal region with inability to catch the breath, sighing, swelling in the axilla, sudden shan disorder, hardness of the lower abdomen, herpes zoster.
    • One-sided headache, redness, swelling and pain of the eyes, superficial visual obstruction, poor eyesight, throat painful obstruction.
    • Vomiting, acid regurgitation, chronic malaria with cold shivering.
    • Neck pain, chills and fever with swelling of the neck, windstroke, paralysis, pain of the lumbar spine, pain of the hip, atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the lower limb, cramping and pain of the legs, sciatica, pain of the lower leg, drop foot, flaccidity of the ankle, swelling of the lateral ankle, pain of the wrist.
    • Spreads Liver qi and clears Gall Bladder heat and damPC-heat
    • Activates the channel, alleviates pain and benefits the joints
    • Regulates s haoyang
    GB-41
    Zulinqi
    (Foot Governor of Tears)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (Shu-stream),
    Exit,
    Confluent/Master,
    Confluent/Coupled

    Function:
    Belt Vessel,
    Yang Wei Vessel
    In the depression distal to the junction of the 4th and 5th metatarsal bones, on the lateral side of the tendon of m. extensor digitorumlongus (branch to little toe).

    Landmark: Ask the patient to abduct their little toe in order to make the branch of m. extensor digitorum longus more prominent. Run a finger from Xiaxi GB-43 towards the ankle, along the interspace between the fourth and fifth metatarsals until it passes over this branch into the significant depression immediately beyond the tendon.
    • Pain of the lateral costal region, fullness of the chest with inability to catch the breath, rebellious qi with dyspnoea, chest painful obstruction, pain of the supraclavicular fossa, inversion counterflow of the four limbs, scrofula, swelling of the axilla, enuresis, malaria.
    • Headache, one-sided headache, head wind, dizziness, visual dizziness, pain of the occiput, pain of the vertex, pain of the outer canthus, redness, swelling and pain of the eyes, lacrimation, dry eyes, deafness and tinnitus, propensity to gnaw the tongue and cheek, swelling of the submandibular region and cheek, swelling of Tianyou TH-16, toothache.
    • Distention and pain of the breast, breast abscess, menstrual disorders, inhibited menstruation.
    • Pain of the hip, pain of the lower leg, fixed painful obstruction, wandering pain, swelling and pain of the feet, pain and contraction of the toes, swelling and pain of the dorsum of the feet, all disorders of the feet.
    • Spreads Liver qi
    • Benefits the chest, lateral costal region and breasts
    • Clears the head and benefits the eyes
    • Transforms phlegm and dissipates nodules
    GB-42
    Diwuhui
    (Earth Five Meetings)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Kurcha

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    Between the 4th and 5th metatarsal bones, in the depression proximal to the metatarsal heads, on the medial side of the tendon of m. extensor digitorum longus (branch to little toe).

    Landmark: Ask the patient to abduct their little toe in order to make the branch of m. extensor digitorum longus more prominent. Run a finger from Xiaxi GB-43 towards the ankle, along the interspace between the fourth and fifth metatarsals, until it encounters the significant depression immediately before the tendon.
    • Headache, redness, itching and pain of the eyes, tinnitus, deafness.
    • Fullness of the chest, pain of the lateral costal region, swelling and pain of the axilla, distention and pain of the breasts, breast abscess, spitting blood due to internal injury.
    • Swelling, redness and pain of the dorsum of the foot, lumbar pain.
    • Spreads Liver qi
    • Clears Gall Bladder heat
    Classical sources say that this point should not be treated by moxibustion otherwise emaciation and death will follow within three years. Modern sources however agree that there are no contraindications to moxibustion.
    GB-43
    Xiaxi
    (Clamped Stream)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (Ying-spring),
    Five Element (Mother)

    Function:
    NA
    Between the fourth toe and the little toe, 0.5 cun proximal to the margin of the web.
    • Headache, dizziness, visual dizziness, hypertension, redness and pain of the outer canthus, itching of the eyes, deafness, tinnitus, pain of the ears, pain and swelling of the cheek and submandibular region.
    • Fullness and pain of the chest and lateral costal region, pain of the chest with inability to turn to the side, breast abscess, discharging breast abscess.
    • Amenorrhoea, hardness and pain of the hypogastrium, swelling of the four limbs, pain of the whole body, febrile disease with absence of sweating, copious sweating, malaria, mania.
    • Wandering pain, pain of the knee and thigh, swelling and pain of the lateral aspect of the knee, redness, swelling and pain of the dorsum of the foot, heat in the soles of the feet, damp erosion and cracks between the toes, contraction of the five toes.
    • Clears heat and benefits the head, ears and eyes
    • Clears damPC-heat from the channel and reduces swelling
    GB-44
    Zuqiaoyin
    (Yin Portals of the Foot)


    Meridian:
    Gallbladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (Jing-well)

    Function:
    NA
    On the dorsal aspect of the 4th toe, at the junction of lines drawn along the lateral border of the nail and the base of the nail, approximately 0.1 cun from the corner of the nail.
    • Headache, headache with agitation, stabbing pain of the head, dizziness, sudden deafness, tinnitus, redness swelling and pain of the eyes, pain of the outer canthus, throat painful obstruction, stiffness of the tongue or curled tongue with dry mouth, stiffness of the tongue with inability to speak.
    • Pain of the lateral costal region, pain of the lateral costal region with cough and inability to catch the breath.
    • Nightmares, insomnia, somnolence, agitation and heat of the hands and feet.
    • Irregular menstruation, febrile disease, absence of sweating.
    • Contracted sinews, contraction of the sinews of the four limbs, inability to raise the elbow.
    • Clears heat and benefits the head
    • Benefits the chest and lateral costal region
    • Calms the spirit
    LV-1
    Dadun
    (Big Mound)


    Meridian:
    Liver Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (Jing-well),
    Entry

    Function:
    NA
    On the dorsal aspect of the big toe, at the junction of lines drawn along the lateral border of the nail and the base of the nail, approximately 0.1 cun from the corner of the nail.

    Landmark: Some sources (including the Spiritual Pivot) locate this point on the dorsal aspect of the big toe, midway between the lateral corner of the nail (i.e. the location above) and the interphalangeal joint, 0.4 cun proximal to the corner of the nail.
    • Shan disorder, sudden shan disorder, the seven kinds of shan disorder, hypogastric pain, pain of the umbilicus, abdominal distention and swelling, constipation, heat of the lower abdomen.
    • Swelling and pain of the genitals, pain of the head of the penis, retraction of the genitals, swelling of the testicles.
    • Painful retention of urine, blood in the urine, painful urinary dysfunction, the five types of painful urinary dysfunction, enuresis, frequent urination.
    • Irregular menstruation, ceaseless uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia, uterine prolapse.
    • Epilepsy, loss of consciousness from windstroke, loss of consciousness, acute and chronic childhood fright wind, excessive fright and little strength, great fear as if seeing ghosts, mania-depression, worry and oppression, bitter taste in the mouth, sighing, somnolence, sudden Heart pain, tetany, ceaseless nosebleed, copious sweating.
    • Regulates qi in the lower jiao, treats shan disorder and alleviates pain
    • Benefits the genitals and adjusts urination
    • Regulates Liver qi and stops menstrual bleeding
    • Revives consciousness and calms the spirit
    LV-2
    Xingjian
    (Moving Between)


    Meridian:
    Liver Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    Sweat channel

    Part of Marma:
    Kshipra

    Subdosha:
    Ranjaka (Pitta)

    Category:
    Five Shu (Ying-spring),
    Five Element (Child)

    Function:
    NA
    On the dorsum of the foot, between the first and second toes, 0.5 cun proximal to the margin of the web.
    • Headache, dizziness, redness and pain of the eyes, lacrimation, eye diseases.
    • Nosebleed, thirst, burning heat of the face, dark green complexion, death-like green colour.
    • Throat painful obstruction, dry throat with agitation and thirst, clutching sensation in the throat, bitter taste in the mouth, heat in the body.
    • Propensity to anger, sadness, propensity to fright, closes eyes and has no desire to look, excessive fright and little strength, propensity to fear as if seeing ghosts, madness, insomnia, palpitations, epilepsy, loss of consciousness, chronic and acute childhood fright wind.
    • Contracted sinews, windstroke, fullness of the four limbs, deviation of the mouth, tetany, hypertension.
    • Pain and itching of the genitals, pain of the penis, sudden involuntary erection, the seven kinds of shan disorder, cold shan disorder, painful urinary dysfunction, enuresis, retention of urine, difficult urination, white turbidity, red and white leucorrhoea, cold or damp (dong) diarrhoea, constipation, abdominal distention.
    • Incessant uterine bleeding, menorrhagia, inhibited menstruation, early menstruation, lower abdominal fullness, abdominal (jia) masses in women, difficult lactation.
    • Coughing blood, vomiting, pain of the Heart and the Liver, distention and pain of the chest and lateral costal region, pain of the chest and back, pain below the Heart, much sighing, inability to catch the breath all day long, difficulty in catching the breath, shortness of breath.
    • Four limbs counterflow cold, wasting and thirsting disorder with desire to drink, malaria, lotus flower tongue in children.
    • Lumbar pain with difficulty in flexing and extending the back, swelling of the knee, pain of the inner aspect of the leg, heat in the shin, leg qi with redness and swelling, pain and swelling of the instep.
    • Clears Liver fire
    • Spreads Liver qi
    • Pacifies Liver wind
    • Clears heat and stops bleeding
    • Benefits the lower jiao
    LV-3
    Taichong
    (Great Rushing)


    Meridian:
    Liver Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    Sweat channel

    Part of Marma:
    Kshipra,
    Kurcha

    Subdosha:
    Alochaka (Pitta)

    Category:
    Five Shu (Shu-stream),
    Yuan/Base,
    Ma Danyang/12 Star Points

    Function:
    NA
    On the dorsum of the foot, in the hollow distal to the junction of the first and second metatarsal bones.

    Landmark: Run a finger from Xingjian LV-2 along the interspace between the first and second metatarsal bones towards the ankle, into the pronounced depression before the junction of the bases of the first and second metatarsals.
    • Headache, dizziness, numbness of the head, opisthotonos, contraction of the sinews of the hands and feet, epilepsy, childhood fright wind, deviation of the mouth, tetany, hypertension.
    • Distention and pain of the lateral costal region, inability to catch the breath all day long, sighing, swelling of the axilla, pain of the Liver and Heart, Heart pain with a wiry pulse, distention of the Heart, breast pain, epigastric or abdominal pain, periumbilical pain, pain and fullness of the hypogastrium, shan disorder, sudden shan disorder in children, swollen testicles, retracted testicles, unilateral sagging of the testicle, pain of the genitals.
    • Insomnia, easily fearful.
    • Blurred vision, cloudy vision, redness, swelling and pain of the eyes.
    • Cracked lips, swelling of the lips, distention of the throat, pain of the throat, dry throat with desire to drink, internal heat with thirst, low grade fever, death-like green complexion.
    • Amenorrhoea, irregular menstruation, incessant uterine bleeding, uterine prolapse, ceaseless and profuse sweating after childbirth, insufficient lactation.
    • Enuresis, difficult urination, retention of urine, painful urinary dysfunction, the five types of painful urinary dysfunction, deficiency-taxation oedema.
    • Jaundice, vomiting, vomiting blood, nausea, constipation, difficult defecation, borborygmus, diarrhoea containing undigested food, diarrhoea with thin stools, bloody diarrhoea and dysenteric disorder, blood in the stools.
    • Emaciation, insufficiency of essence (semen) in men, seminal emission, insufficiency of qi.
    • Lumbar pain radiating to the lower abdomen, lumbar pain, pain of the inner and outer knee, pain of the lower leg, flaccidity and weakness of the legs, inability to walk, cold sensation in the knees and feet, cold feet, pain of the inner malleolus, swelling of the elbow, contraction of the five fingers.
    • Sudden fits and convulsions, both feet unable to walk, all types of hernias, aching waist.
    • Spreads Liver qi
    • Subdues Liver yang and extinguishes wind
    • Nourishes Liver blood and Liver yin
    • Clears the head and eyes
    • Regulates menstruation
    • Regulates the lower jiao
    LV-4
    Zhongfeng
    (Middle Seal)


    Meridian:
    Liver Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (Jing-river)

    Function:
    NA
    On the ankle, anterior to the prominence of the medial malleolus, in the significant depression just medial to the tendon of tibialis anterior when the ankle is extended (dorsiflexed).

    Landmark: 1. It is important to extend (dorsiflex) the ankle (by drawing the toes upwards towards the shin) before locating this point.
    2. This point is also described as midway between Shangqiu SPC-5 and Jiexi ST-41; iii. The distance of this point from the prominence of the medial malleolus is given variously in classical sources as either 1 or 1.5 cun.
    • Pain and retraction of the genitals, hypogastric pain, shan disorder, cold shan disorder, seminal emission, seminal emission due to deficiency-taxation, seminal emission with dreams, difficult urination, the five types of painful urinary dysfunction, retention of urine.
    • Pain and swelling of the lower abdomen, abdominal discomfort after eating, periumbilical pain, difficult defecation, no pleasure in eating.
    • Green complexion, sighing, jaundice, yellow body with low grade fever, low grade fever, malaria, goitre, dry throat.
    • Lumbar pain, contracted sinews, numbness of the body, diminished qi, heaviness of the body, pain of the medial aspect of the knee, cold inversion of the feet, pain and swelling of the medial malleolus.
    • Spreads Liver qi and regulates the lower jiao
    • Clears Liver channel stagnant heat
    LV-5
    Ligou
    (Woodworm Canal)


    Meridian:
    Liver Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Luo/Bridge

    Function:
    NA
    5 cun above the prominence of the medial malleolus, immediately posterior to the medial crest of the tibia, in the depression between the medial crest of the tibia and the gastrocnemius muscle.

    Landmark: Divide the distance between the tip of the medial malleolus and the popliteal crease into thirds; Ligou LV-5 is located at the junction of the distal third and proximal two thirds.
    • Itching, swelling and pain of the genitals, sudden itching of the genitals, sudden swelling and pain of the testicles, incessant erection, shan disorder, cold shan disorder, distention and fullness of the lower abdomen, qi accumulation below the umbilicus like a stone.
    • Difficult urination, retention of urine.
    • Dysmenorrhoea, irregular menstruation, red and white leucorrhoea, prolapse of the uterus.
    • Plumstone qi (globus hystericus), depression, much belching, fright palpitations, fear and fright, worry and oppression.
    • Inflexibility of the back with inability to turn, lumbar pain, cold and pain of the feet and lower leg.
    • Spreads the Liver, regulates qi and benefits the genitals
    • Clears dampness and heat from lower jiao
    • Regulates menstruation
    • Treats plumstone qi
    LV-6
    Zhongdu
    (Central Capital)


    Meridian:
    Liver Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Xi/Cleft

    Function:
    NA
    7 cun above the prominence of the medial malleolus, immediately posterior to the medial border of the tibia, in the depression between the medial border of the tibia and the gastrocnemius muscle.

    Landmark: Divide the distance between the tip of the medial malleolus and the popliteal crease into half and locate Zhongdu LV-6 at 0.5 cun distal to the midpoint.
    • Shan disorder, lower abdominal pain; hypogastric pin, diarrhoea, persistent flow of lochia, uterine bleeding.
    • Damp painful obstruction with inability to walk, flaccidity and emaciation of the legs, numbness of the body, numbness of the hands and feet, cold sensation of the lower legs with inability to stand for long, hot sensation of the soles of the feet.
    • Spreads Liver qi and regulates the lower jiao
    • Regulates blood
    • Drains damp
    LV-7
    Xiguan
    (Knee Joint)


    Meridian:
    Liver Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    Posterior and inferior to the medial condyle of the tibia, 1 cun posterior to Yinlingquan SPC-9.

    Landmark: Locate Yinlingquan SPC-9 in the depression in the angle formed by the medial condyle of the tibia and the posterior border of the tibia, and then locate Xiguan LV-7 one cun posterior to it.
    • Swelling and pain of the knee, pain of the inner aspect of the knee radiating to the patella, crane knee wind, wind painful obstruction, white tiger joint wind pain, difficulty in flexing and extending the knee, cold damp pouring downwards.
    • Abdominal pain, pain of the throat
    • Dispels wind-damp
    • Benefits the kAee and relaxes the sinews
    LV-8
    Ququan
    (Spring at the Crook)


    Meridian:
    Liver Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Five Shu (He-sea),
    Five Element (Mother)

    Function:
    NA
    Just superior to the medial end of the popliteal crease, in the depression anterior to the tendons of m. semitendinosus and m. semimembranosus, about 1 cun anterior to Yingu KD-10.

    Landmark: 1. It is helpful to flex the knee to locate the popliteal crease and identify the tendons of m. semitendinosus and m. semimembranosus, although the point may subsequently be needled with a pillow under the leg to semi-flex it.
    2. The tendon of semitendinosus, which lies posteriorly to semimembranosus, is the most prominent of the two tendons.
    • Swelling and itching of the genitals, pain of the genitals, pain of the penis, impotence, seminal emission, seminal emission associated with sexual taxation.
    • Difficult urination, retention of urine, enuresis.
    • Diarrhoea containing undigested food, diarrhoea containing blood and pus, no pleasure in eating.
    • Uterine prolapse, abdominal masses in women due to blood stasis, masses (zheng jia) of the hypogastrium, infertility due to blood stasis, amenorrhoea, swelling of the hypogastrium, shan disorder, pain of the abdomen and lateral costal region, umbilical pain.
    • Mania disorder, headache, visual dizziness, nosebleed, redness, heat, swelling and pain of the eyes, dyspnoea.
    • Knee pain, swelling and pain of the patella, coldness and pain of the knee and lower leg, pain of the inner thigh, extreme pain of the body.
    • Clears damPC-heat from the lower jiao
    • Benefits the genitals
    • Invigorates blood and benefits the uterus
    • Nourishes blood and yin
    LV-9
    Yinbao
    (Yin Wrapping)


    Meridian:
    Liver Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Ani

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    Directly superior to the medial epicondyle of the femur, 4 cun superior to Ququan LV-8, in the cleft between m. vastus medialis and m. sartorius.

    Landmark: Locate one patella height (2 cun) above the superior border of the patella, in the tender depression between m. vastus medialis and m. sartorius, directly above Ququan LV-8.
    • Irregular menstruation, disorders of menstruation, difficult urination, retention of urine, enuresis.
    • Lumbo-sacral pain extending to the lower abdomen.
    • Adjusts menstruation and regulates the lower jiao
    LV-10
    Zuwuli
    (Leg Five Miles)


    Meridian:
    Liver Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    3 cun inferior to Qichong ST-30 on the anterior border of m. adductor longus.

    Landmark: 1. Qichong ST-30 is located on the lower abdomen, 2 cun lateral to the midline, level with the superior border of the pubic symphysis (Qugu CV-2).
    2. Measure the 3 cun as one handbreadth inferior to Qichong ST-30.
    3. The tendon of origin of adductor longus arises from the pubic bone and is identified as the most prominent tendon in the groin.
    • Difficult urination, retention of urine, enuresis, itching of the genitals, swelling and pain of the testicles, fullness of the abdomen, fullness of the lower abdomen.
    • Wind-taxation somnolence, difficult respiration, cough.
    • Clears damPC-heat and benefits the lower jiao
    LV-11
    Yinlian
    (Yin Corner)


    Meridian:
    Liver Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Lohitaksha

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    2 cun inferior to Qichong ST-30 on the anterior border of m. adductor longus

    Landmark: 1. Qichong ST-30 is located on the lower abdomen, 2 cun lateral to the midline, level with the superior border of the pubic symphysis (Qugu CV-2).
    2. The tendon of origin of adductor longus arises from the pubic bone and is identified as the most prominent tendon in the groin.
    • Infertility, irregular menstruation, pain in the inner thigh and knee.
    • Benefits the uterus
    LV-12
    Jimai
    (Urgent Pulse)


    Meridian:
    Liver Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    1 cun inferior and 2.5 cun lateral to Qugu CV-2, in the crease of the groin, medial to the femoral vein.

    Landmark: Locate the pulsation of the femoral artery in the groin, approximately midway between the pubic symphysis and the anterior superior iliac spine. The femoral vein runs along the medial side of the artery and is approximately one fingerbreadth in diameter. Jimai LV-12 is then located just medial to the vein on the groin crease.
    • Pain of the genitals, pain of the penis, swelling of the testicles, uterine prolapse.
    • Pain of the hypogastrium, shan disorder, pain of the inner thigh.
    • Eliminates cold from the Liver channel and benefits the lower jiao
    Care should be taken to avoid penetrating the femoral vein. The Essential Questions advises that this point should be treated by moxibustion rather than needling. Modern texts, however, say that moxibustion is contraindicated due to the proximity of this point both to the femoral vessels and to the pubic hair, and that the point should rather be treated by needling.
    LV-13
    Zhangmen
    (Completion Gate)


    Meridian:
    Liver Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Mu/Front,
    Hui Meeting/Gathering

    Function:
    Spleen organ,
    Yin Organs
    Directly anterior and inferior to the free end of the eleventh rib

    Landmark: 1. To locate the free end of the eleventh rib, first place the entire hand on the upper abdomen and with gentle finger pressure palpate downwards along the costal margin, until the end of the eleventh rib is located just above the level of the umbilicus.
    2. This point usually lies on or near the mid-axillary line which is drawn vertically down from the apex of the axilla (Jiquan HT-I).
    • Injury to the Stomach and Spleen from overindulgence in eating, focal distention, distention and pain of the abdomen, drum distention, abdominal (ji ju) masses, oesophageal constriction, vomiting, pain of the Heart with vomiting, no pleasure in eating, undigested food (in the stool), borborygmus, diarrhoea, constipation, emaciation and jaundice, frequent urination with turbid white discharge.
    • Fullness of the chest and lateral costal region, pain of the ribs, sudden difficulty in breathing, inability to catch the breath, dyspnoea, cough, stone oedema.
    • Weariness of the four limbs, running piglet qi with distention of the abdomen, diminished qi with inversion counterflow.
    • Agitation and heat with dry mouth, propensity to anger, propensity to fear, mad walking, epilepsy.
    • Cold and pain of the lumbar spine, rigidity of the spine, lumbar pain with inability to turn and bend the waist, inability to raise the arm and shoulder.
    • Harmonises the Liver and Spleen
    • Regulates the middle and lower jiao
    • Fortifies the Spleen
    • Spreads the Liver and regulates qi
    LV-14
    Qimen
    (Cycle Gate)


    Meridian:
    Liver Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Mu/Front,
    Exit

    Function:
    Liver organ
    On the mamillary line, in the sixth intercostal space, 4 cun lateral to the midline.

    Landmark: 1. First locate the costal cartilage of the second rib which is level with the sternal angle, then locate the second intercostal space below it and count down to the sixth space.
    2. Note that there is another point known as lower Qimen located on the mamillary line, 4 cun lateral to the midline, on the lower border of the tenth rib.
    • Pain, distention and fullness of the chest, (ji ju) masses in the lateral costal region, pain of the lateral costal region, much sighing, cutting pain of the Heart, distention and pain of the breast, agitation and heat of the chest, cough, dyspnoea, enlarged and hard abdomen with difficulty in breathing.
    • Epigastric distention and pain, acid regurgitation, vomiting and hiccup, vomiting fluid after eating, sudden turmoil disorder, desire to eat despite difficult ingestion, abdominal distention and watery diarrhoea, hardness of the epigastrium, hypogastrium and abdomen.
    • Injury by cold leading to heat which enters the blood chamber, manic raving, alternating chills and fever, uterine bleeding, post-partum disorders, red face, tetany, dry mouth.
    • Malaria, jaundice, gallstones, wasting and thirsting disorder, running piglet qi, stiffness and pain of the head and neck, visual dizziness.
    • Spreads the Liver and regulates qi
    • Invigorates blood and disperses masses
    • Harmonises the Liver and Stomach
    Deep perpendicular or oblique insertion carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
    BL-1
    Jingming
    (Bright Eyes)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Entry

    Function:
    NA
    0.1 cun medial and superior to the inner canthus of the eye, near the medial border of the orbit.
    • Redness, swelling and pain of the eyes, lacrimation on exposure to wind, redness and itching of the inner canthus, blurred vision, dimness of vision, night blindness, photophobia, colour blindness, visual dizziness, near sightedness, superficial visual obstruction, aversion to cold with headache
    • Benefits the eyes
    • Expels wind and clears heat
    BL-2
    Zanzhu
    (Gathered Bamboo)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    Superior to the inner canthus, in a depression on the eyebrow, close to its medial end.

    Landmark: Palpate laterally along the eyebrow from its medial end and feel for the hollow directly above Jingming UB-1. This point is often found to be tender on palpation.
    • Pain of the eyebrow region, frontal headache, head wind, wind dizziness, nosebleed, rhinitis, sneezing, pain of the face, red face with cheek pain.
    • Blurred vision, dimness of vision, visual dizziness, lacrimation on exposure to wind, night blindness, redness, swelling and pain of the eye, itching of the eyes, infantile epilepsy with upward staring eyes, twitching of the eyelids, bursting sensation of the eye.
    • Haemorrhoid pain, manic behaviour, loss of consciousness, pain and stiffness of the neck.
    • Eliminates wind and clears heat
    • Benefits the eyes
    • Clears the head and alleviates pain
    BL-3
    Meichong
    (Eyebrows Pouring)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    Directly superior to Zanzhu UB-2, 0.5 cun within the anterior hairline, level with Shenting GV-24.

    Landmark: The distance between the anterior and posterior hairlines is measured as 12 cun. If the anterior hairline is indistinct, the distance is measured as 15 cun between the glabella [point Yintang (M-HN-3)] and the posterior hairline; the location of the anterior hairline would thus be defined as one fifth of this distance. If the posterior hairline is indistinct, it can be measured as 1 cun inferior to Fengfu GV-16 which lies immediately below the external occipital protuberance.
    • Headache, vertex headache, dizziness, dimness of vision, nasal congestion, nasal sores, dyspnoea, epilepsy, agitation and fullness of the Heart.
    • Expels wind, clears the head and alleviates pain
    • Benefits the eyes and nose
    BL-4
    Quchai
    (Crooked Curve)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Shringataka

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    0.5 cun within the anterior hairline, 1.5 cun lateral to Shenting GV-24 and one third of the distance between Shenting GV-24 and Touwei ST-8.

    Landmark: To locate the anterior hairline if indistinct, see location note for Meichong UB-3.
    • Headache, vertex headache, swelling of the vertex, blurred vision, eye pain, dimness of vision, nasal congestion, nasal sores, nosebleed, rhinitis.
    • Agitation and fullness of the Heart, dyspnoea, absence of sweating, agitation and heat in the body.
    • Expels wind, clears the head and alleviates pain
    • Benefits the eyes and nose
    BL-5
    Wuchu
    (Fifth Place)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Shringataka

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    0.5 cun directly posterior to Quchai UB-4, l cun anterior hairline, and 1.5 cun lateral to Shangxing GV-23.

    Landmark: 1. To locate the anterior hairline if indistinct, see location note for Meichong UB-3
    2. Note that the distance from the anterior hairline at the midline to Baihui GV-20 is 5 cun.
    • Rigidity of the spine, opisthotonos, upward staring eyes, epilepsy, madness, tetany, clonic spasm, dizziness, visual dizziness, dimness of vision.
    • Headache, pain of the head and eye, heaviness of the head, nasal congestion.
    • Eliminates wind, descends yang and clears heat
    • Clears the head and nose
    BL-6
    Chengguang
    (Receiving Light)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    1.5 cun posterior to Wuchu UB-5,2.5 cun within the anterior hairline and 1.5 cun lateral to the midline.

    Landmark: 1. To locate the anterior hairline if indistinct, see location note for Meichong UB-3.
    2. Note that the distance from the anterior hairline at the midline to Baihui GV-20 is 5 cun.
    • Vertex headache, wind dizziness, superficial visual obstruction, blurred vision, short sightedness, copious clear nasal discharge, nasal congestion, inability to distinguish the fragrant from the foul, deviation of the mouth.
    • Vomiting, agitation of the Heart with vomiting, febrile disease with absence of sweating.
    • Eliminates wind and clears heat
    • Clears the head and benefits the eyes and nose
    BL-7
    Tongtian
    (Heavenly Connection)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    1.5 cun posterior to Chengguang UB-6 and 4 cun within the anterior hairline, 1.5 cun lateral to the midline.

    Landmark: 1. The distance between the glabella (Yintang M-HN-3) and the lower border of the occipital protuberance (Fengfu GV-16) is measured as 14 cun. Tongtian UB-7 is located 1.5 cun lateral to the midpoint of this line.
    2. Tongtian UB-7 can also be located 1 cun anterior and 1.5 cun lateral to Baihui GV-20.
    • Nasal congestion and discharge, profuse nasal discharge, rhinitis, loss of sense of smell, nosebleed, nasal sores.
    • Vertex headache, heaviness of the head, deviation of the mouth, swollen face, goitre, stiff neck, dyspnoea, collapse on sudden standing, loss of consciousness.
    • Benefits and regulates the nose
    • Clears the head
    BL-8
    Luoque
    (Declining Connection)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    1.5 cun posterior to Tongtian UB-7, and 5.5 cun within the anterior hairline, 1.5 cun lateral to the midline.

    Landmark: 1. Luoque UB-8 is most easily located 1.5 cun lateral to and 0.5 cun posterior to Baihui GV-20.
    2. To locate the anterior hairline if indistinct, see location note for Meichong UB-3.
    3. Note that the distance from the anterior hairline at the midline to Baihui GV-20 is 5 cun
    • Dizziness, tinnitus, nasal congestion, deviation of the mouth, blurred vision.
    • Mania-depression, mad walking, epilepsy, disorientation, goitre, vomiting, abdominal distention, collapse.
    • Benefits the sense organs
    • Pacifies wind, transforms phlegm and calms the spirit
    BL-9
    Yuzhen
    (Jade Pillow)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    1.3 cun lateral to Naohu GV-17 (which is located in the depression superior to the external occipital protuberance, 1.5 cun superior to Fengfu GV-16).
    • Occipital headache, pain from head wind that is difficult to endure, dizziness, pain of the neck with inability to turn the head, pain of the head and neck with aversion to wind and absence of sweating, heaviness of the head and neck, cold sensation in half of the head, cold head with copious sweating, red face, pain of the cheek.
    • Eye pain, bursting eye pain, short sightedness, nasal congestion, loss of sense of smell.
    • Chills and fever, bone pain with chills and fever, vomiting, madness, mad walking, epilepsy, collapse on sudden standing.
    • Expels wind and cold and alleviates pain
    • Benefits the nose and eyes
    BL-10
    Tianzhu
    (Celestial Pillar)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Ani

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Window of Sky

    Function:
    Tian Zhu (Heavens Pillar)
    On the lateral aspect of the trapezius muscle, 1.3 cun lateral to Yamen GV-15.

    Landmark: First locate Fengfu GV-16 directly below the occipital protuberance in a depression between the trapezius on both sides. Then locate Yamen GV-15 which is 0.5 cun below Fengfu GV-16 in the depression 0.5 cun within the hairline. Now locate Tianzhu UB-10, 1.3 cun lateral to Yamen GV-15.
    • Dizziness, inability of the legs to support the body, sudden muscular contractions, pain of the body.
    • Pain and heaviness of the head, headache, head wind, stiffness of the neck with inability to turn the head, pain of the shoulder and back, bursting eye pain, redness of the eyes, blurred vision, lacrimation, swelling of the throat with difficulty in speaking, nasal congestion, loss of sense of smell, febrile disease with absence of sweating.
    • Mania, incessant talking, seeing ghosts, epilepsy, childhood epilepsy, upward staring eyes.
    • Regulates qi and pacifies wind
    • Benefits the head and sensory orifices
    • Calms the spirit
    • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
    BL-11
    Dazhu
    (Great Shuttle)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Amsaphalaka

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Hui Meeting/Gathering,
    Four Seas

    Function:
    Bones,
    Sea of Blood
    1.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the first thoracic vertebra (T1).

    Landmark: Locate at the visible highest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Bone diseases, rigidity of the nape of the neck, rigidity of the spine, soreness and pain of the back and scapula, lumbar pain, tetany, clonic spasm, contraction of sinews associated with madness, stiffness and pain of the knee.
    • Fever, cold shivering, injury by cold with absence of sweating, injury by wind which does not disperse, failure of the interstices to close, susceptibility to catching wind-cold, malaria, headache, head wind, bursting headache, inversion qi with heavy head, dizziness, blurred vision, collapse, inability to stand for long.
    • Cough, fullness of the chest, dyspnoea, cough due to taxation, depression in the chest, heat in the chest, throat painful obstruction, abdominal pain, abdominal urgency with agitation and fullness.
    • Benefits the bones and joints
    • Expels pathogenic factors and firms the exterior
    • Regulates Lung qi and alleviates cough
    Perpendicular needling carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax
    BL-12
    Fengmeng
    (Wind Gate)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    NA

    Function:
    NA
    1.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the second thoracic vertebra (T2).

    Landmark: Locate at the visible highest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Attack by wind with fever, cold shivering, dislike of wind and cold, headache, injury by cold with rigidity of the head and neck, flaccidity of the interstices with frequent coughing and clear watery nasal discharge, flaccidity of the interstices with susceptibility to catching wind-cold, desire to keep the eyes closed, wind dizziness, visual dizziness.
    • Cough, cough with chest and back pain, coughing blood, dyspnoea, heat in the chest, wind-taxation coughing, wind-exhaustion vomiting, vomiting.
    • Copious nasal discharge, nasal congestion, rhinitis, sneezing, nosebleed.
    • Lumbar pain, stiff neck, urticaria, carbuncles of the back, shoulder pain, restless sleep.
    • Expels wind and releases the exterior
    • Strengthens the defensive qi and firms the exterior
    • Disseminates and descends Lung qi
    • Benefits the nose
    Perpendicular needling or oblique needling away from the spine carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
    BL-13
    Feishu
    (Lung Shu)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Shu/Back

    Function:
    Lung organ
    1.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the third thoracic vertebra (T3).

    Landmark: Locate at the visible highest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Cough, dyspnoea, asthma, fullness of the chest, shortness of breath with no desire to speak, persistent cough in children, cold Lung, heat sensation in the chest, chest pain, difficult breathing on lying down, coughing of phlegm, Lung abscess, attack of the Lung by wind, rapid pulse, fever, night sweating with chills and fever and aversion to cold, cold shivering, absence of sweating, throat painful obstruction.
    • Lung atrophy, consumption, consumption with steaming bone disorder, deficiency-taxation fever, tidal fever, night sweating, spitting blood, wasting and thirsting disorder, dryness of the mouth and tongue, deficiency agitation.
    • Mania, heat in the body, mad walking with desire to commit suicide, epilepsy.
    • Fullness with no pleasure in eating, vomiting, vomiting fluid after eating, vomiting of foam, goitre, jaundice, pain of the flesh and itching of the skin, urticaria.
    • Pain of the upper back and shoulder, crooked spine, turtle back in children, lumbar pain and stiffness.
    • Tonifies Lung qi and nourishes Lung yin
    • Descends and disseminates Lung qi
    • Clears heat from the Lung
    • Releases the exterior
    Perpendicular needling or oblique needling away from the spine carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
    BL-14
    Jueyinshu
    (Jueyin Shu)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Shu/Back

    Function:
    Pericardium organ
    1.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the fourth thoracic vertebra (T4).

    Landmark: Locate at the visible highest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Heart pain, oppression of the chest, pain of the chest and diaphragm due to accumulation of qi, palpitations, agitation and restlessness, agitation and oppression, restless zang disorder.
    • Cough, shortness of breath, rebellious qi vomiting, toothache.
    • Spreads Liver qi and unbinds the chest
    • Regulates the Heart
    • Regulates and descends qi
    Perpendicular needling or oblique needling away from the spine carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
    BL-15
    Xinshu
    (Heart Shu)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Shu/Back

    Function:
    Heart organ
    1.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of fhe fifth thoracic vertebra (T5).

    Landmark: Locate at the visible highest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Heart pain, oppression of the chest with restlessness, chest pain extending to the back, worried and oppressive sensation of the chest with inability to catch the breath, palpitations, fright palpitations, irregular pulse, Heart qi deficiency in children.
    • Poor memory, anxiety, weeping with grief, frightened and cautious with Heart deficiency, insomnia, excessive dreaming, disorientation, delayed speech development, mania-depression, epilepsy, dementia, mad walking, seminal emission.
    • Cough, coughing blood, vomiting, vomiting blood, abdominal distention, difficult ingestion, night sweating, redness of the lips accompanied by sweating.
    • Lack of strength in the root of the tongue, lacrimation, eye pain, windstroke, hemiplegia, jaundice, nosebleed, white turbidity.
    • Tonifies and nourishes the Heart
    • Regulates Heart qi
    • Calms the spirit
    • Unbinds the chest and resolves blood stasis
    • Clears Heart fire
    Perpendicular needling or oblique needling away from the spine carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
    BL-16
    Dushu
    (Governor Shu)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Shu/Back

    Function:
    Governing Vessel
    1.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the sixth thoracic vertebra (T6).

    Landmark: Locate at the visible hghest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Heart pain, epigastric pain, abdominal distention, borborygmus, chills and fever, breast abscess, itching, psoriasis, alopecia.
    • Regulates qi in the chest and abdomen
    Perpendicular needling or oblique needling away from the spine carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
    BL-17
    Geshu
    (Diaphragm Shu)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Shu/Back,
    Hui Meeting/Gathering

    Function:
    Diaphragm organ,
    Blood
    1.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the seventh thoracic vertebra (T7).

    Landmark: Locate at the visible highest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Oppression of the chest, Heart pain, stabbing pain of the Heart, mania-depression, coughing and dyspnoea, throat painful obstruction.
    • Epigastric pain, fullness of the abdomen and lateral costal region, vomiting, vomiting of food eaten the day before, hiccup, oesophageal constriction, difficult ingestion, Stomach reflux, inability to eat, Heart pain on eating, jaundice.
    • Coughing blood, vomiting blood, spitting blood, nosebleed, blood in the stool, all blood diseases, urticaria.
    • Dizziness, tidal fever, night sweating, steaming bone disorder, spontaneous sweating, fever with absence of sweating, aversion to cold.
    • Painful obstruction of the whole body, pain of the whole body, pain of the skin, flesh and bones, frequent stretching and yawning, heaviness of the body, swelling, distention and pain of the body, weariness of the four limbs, lethargy with no desire to move, somnolence, back pain, rigidity of the spine.
    • Invigorates blood and dispels stasis
    • Cools blood heat and stops bleeding
    • Nourishes and harmonises the blood
    • Harmonises the diaphragm and descends rebellious qi
    Single most important point for the treatment of any disorder arising from blood heat, blood stasis or blood deficiency. Perpendicular needling or oblique needling away from the spine carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
    BL-18
    Ganshu
    (Liver Shu)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    Brihati

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Shu/Back

    Function:
    Liver organ
    1.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the ninth thoracic vertebra (T9).

    Landmark: Locate at the visible hghest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Distention and pain of the lateral costal region, epigastric pain, abdominal (ji ju) masses, focal distention, hypogastric fullness and pain, lower abdominal pain, abdominal cramps, shan disorder.
    • Fullness of the chest, cough with chest pain, cough with fullness of the lateral costal region and inability to catch the breath, shortness of breath, jaundice, dry mouth.
    • Much anger, mania-depression, epilepsy.
    • Coughing blood, spitting blood, vomiting blood, nosebleed.
    • Blurred vision, redness of the eyes, night blindness, excessive lacrimation, redness pain and itching of the inner canthus, superficial visual obstruction, upward staring eyes, dizziness, visual dizziness, pain of the nose, pain of the supraorbital region.
    • Rigidity of the neck and spine, pain of the spine, lumbar pain, pain of the neck and shoulders, lockjaw, opisthotonos, cramps, pain of the sinews, tetany.
    • Spreads Liver qi
    • Regulates and nourishes Liver blood
    • Pacifies wind
    • Cools fire and clears damPC-heat
    • Benefits the eyes and sinews
    Perpendicular needling or oblique needling away from the spine carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
    BL-19
    Danshu
    (Gall bladder Shu)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Shu/Back

    Function:
    Gallbladder organ
    1.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the tenth thoracic vertebra (T10).

    Landmark: Locate at the visible highest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Jaundice, yellow eyes, bitter taste in the mouth with a dry tongue, distention and pain of the chest and lateral costal region with inability to turn, vomiting, difficult ingestion, dry retching.
    • Fright palpitations with restless sleep, insomnia.
    • Steaming bone taxation fever, deficiency-taxation, tidal fever, dryness and pain of the throat, cold shivering with absence of sweating, swelling of the axilla, headache.
    • Clears damPC-heat from the Liver and Gall Bladder
    • Clears pathogenic factors from the shaoyang
    • Tonifies and regulates Gall Bladder qi
    • Tonifies deficiency
    Perpendicular needling or oblique needling away from the spine carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
    BL-20
    Pishu
    (Spleen Shu)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Shu/Back

    Function:
    Spleen organ
    1.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the eleventh thoracic vertebra (T11).

    Landmark: Locate at the visible highest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Distention and pain of the abdomen, focal distention, abdominal (ji ju) masses, lack of appetite, remains thin despite much eating, Spleen qi cold, undigested food (in the stools), diarrhoea, dysenteric disorder, chronic childhood fright wind, childhood nutritional impairment, drum distention, deficiency-taxation, jaundice, yellow body with abdominal fullness and vomiting, pain of the lateral costal region.
    • Blood in the stools, blood in the urine, vomiting blood, menorrhagia, chronic haemorrhage, uterine prolapse.
    • Oedema, somnolence, lassitude and heaviness of the body with no desire to move, no desire to move the four limbs.
    • Malarial diseases with chills and fever, lumbar pain, pain of the shoulder and back, yawning, cough, skin pain, turbid white urine, clonic spasm.
    • Tonifies Spleen qi and yang
    • Resolves dampness
    • Raises Spleen qi and holds the blood
    • Regulates and harmonises the qi of the middle jiao
    Perpendicular needling or oblique needling away from the spine carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
    BL-21
    Weishu
    (Stomach Shu)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Shu/Back

    Function:
    Stomach organ
    1.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the twelfth thoracic vertebra (T12).

    Landmark: Locate at the visible highest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Epigastric pain, cold and feeble Stomach, distention and cold of the Stomach, distention and fullness of the abdomen and epigastrium, fullness of the lateral costal region, oedema and drum distention.
    • Thin body despite much eating, hungry but unable to eat, lack of appetite, difficult ingestion, vomiting, vomiting clear fluid, vomiting in the morning what was eaten the evening before, Stomach reflux, sudden turmoil disorder, contracted sinews, childhood nutritional impairment, regurgitation of milk in children.
    • Borborygrnus, diarrhoea, undigested food (in the stool).
    • Chest pain, contraction and pain of the back, jaundice, malaria, long-term abdominal (ji) masses, dimness of vision, prolapse of the rectum.
    • Regulates the Stomach and descends rebellion
    • Harmonises the middle jiao
    Perpendicular needling or oblique needling away from the spine carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
    BL-22
    Sanjiosshu
    (Sanjiao Shu)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Shu/Back

    Function:
    Triple Heater organ
    1.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the first lumbar vertebra (Ll).

    Landmark: Locate at the visible lughest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Borborygmus, diarrhoea, undigested food (in the stool), dysenteric disorder, oesophageal constriction, vomiting, difficult ingestion.
    • Abdominal distention with emaciation, abdominal (zheng ju) masses and emaciation in women, zangfu (ji ju) masses, large and hard hypogastric (ji ju) masses.
    • Oedema, difficult urination, white turbidity, blood in the urine, deficiency-taxation.
    • Headache, visual dizziness, alternating chills and fever, heat in the body, bitter taste in the mouth and cracked lips, jaundice.
    • Stiffness and pain of the lumbar spine, inflexibility and stiffness of the shoulder and back.
    • Moves and regulates the Sanjiao
    • Regulates the Spleen and Stomach and resolves dampness
    • Regulates the water passages and promotes urination
    • Resolves masses
    Perpendicular needling or oblique needling away from the spine carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
    BL-23
    Shenshu
    (Kidney Shu)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Shu/Back

    Function:
    Kidney organ
    1.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the second lumbar vertebra (L2).

    Landmark: Locate at the visible highest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Oedema, deficiency-taxation oedema, difficult urination, turbid urine, deficiency-exhaustion white turbidity, enuresis, frequent urination, dripping urination, wasting and thirsting disorder with frequent urination, blood in the urine.
    • Seminal emission, seminal emission with dreams, urine containing semen, impotence, premature ejaculation, pain of the genitals, acute hypogastric pain.
    • Irregular menstruation, accumulation of cold in women giving rise to taxation, chronic cold of the uterus, emaciation in women due to sexual intercourse during menstruation, leucorrhoea, red and white leucorrhoea.
    • Cold or damp (dong) diarrhoea, borborygmus, undigested food in the stools, eats a lot but remains thin, pain of the lateral costal region, cold and distention of the Stomach, cold vomiting.
    • Chronic dyspnoea and cough, asthma, diminished qi.
    • Kidney deficiency deafness, tinnitus, visual dizziness, night blindness, blurred vision.
    • The five taxations and the seven injuries, taxation of the five zang, chronic cold of the water (Kidney) zang, deficiency-taxation emaciation.
    • Heavy head with heat in the body, redness and heat of the face, redness of the head and body, yellowblack complexion, wind headache, alternating chills and fever, rebellious qi Heart pain.
    • Pain and soreness of the lumbar region and knees, icy-cold sensation of the lumbar region, cold legs, hot and cold sensations of the bones, windstroke, hemiplegia.
    • Tonifies the Kidneys and fortifies yang
    • Benefits essence
    • Nourishes Kidney yin
    • Firms Kidney qi
    • Regulates the water passages and benefits urination
    • Benefits and warms the uterus
    • Benefits the ears and eyes
    • Strengthens the lumbar region
    Deep perpendicular needling carries a risk of injuring the kidney.
    BL-24
    Qihaishu
    (Sea of Qi Shu)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Shu/Back

    Function:
    Sea of Qi
    1.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the third lumbar vertebra (L3).

    Landmark: Locate at the visible highest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Lumbar pain and stiffness, painful obstruction and pain of the lower limb, atrophy disorder.
    • Dysmenorrhoea, irregular menstruation, leucorrhoea.
    • Haemorrhoids, bleeding haemorrhoids, diarrhoea, diarrhoea containing blood, abdominal pain.
    • Strengthens the lumbar region and legs
    • Regulates the lower jiao
    Perpendicular needling or oblique needling away from the spine carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
    BL-25
    Dachangshu
    (Large Intestine Shu)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Shu/Back

    Function:
    Large Intestine organ
    1.5 cunlateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the fourth lumbar vertebra (L4).

    Landmark: Locate at the visiblehghest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Borborygmus, cold or damp (dong) diarrhoea, undigested food (in the stool), dysenteric disorder, blood in the stool, intestinal abscess, difficulty in urination and defecation, constipation, prolapse of the rectum.
    • Distention and pain of the abdomen, hypogastric pain, distention and fullness of the hypogastrium, twisting pain of the lower abdomen, cutting pain of the umbilical region, inability to eat and drink, remains thin despite much eating.
    • Lumbar pain, stiffness and rigidity of the lumbar spine, pain and painful obstruction of the lower limbs, atrophy disorder, dysmenorrhoea.
    • Regulates the intestines
    • Transforms stagnation and alleviates pain
    • Strengthens the lumbar region and legs
    BL-26
    Guanyuanshu
    (Gate of Origin Shu)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Shu/Back

    Function:
    Gate of Source
    1.5 cun lateral to the lower border of the spinous process of the fifth lumbar vertebra (L5).

    Landmark: Locate at the visible lughest point of the paraspinal muscles.
    • Lumbar pain, wind-taxation lumbar pain.
    • Abdominal distention, deficiency distention, abdominal (jia ju) masses in women, diarrhoea, constipation.
    • Enuresis, frequent urination, difficult urination, wasting and thirsting disorder
    • Strengthens the lumbar region
    • Regulates the lower jiao
    BL-27
    Xiaochangshu
    (Small Intestine Shu)


    Meridian:
    Bladder Meridian

    Chakra:
    NA
    Srotas:
    NA

    Part of Marma:
    NA

    Subdosha:
    NA

    Category:
    Shu/Back

    Function:
    Small Intestine organ
    1.5 cun lateral to the midline, at the level of the first posterior sacral foramen

    Landmark: As the inner line of the Bladder channel on the back descends towards the sacrum, it runs closer to the midline; the 1.5 cun measurement in this area, therefore, will be relatively shorter.
    • Diarrhea, dysenteric disorder, blood and mucus in the stools, haemorrhoids, pain of haemorrhoids, constipation.
    • Dark yellow urine, enuresis, retention of urine, difficult urination and defecation, blood in the urine, leucorrhoea, seminal emission.
    • Lower abdominal pain, painful shan disorder, testicular pain that radiates to the lumbar region.
    • Wasting and thirsting disorder, dry mouth that is hard to endure, agitation of the Heart with shortness of breath, swollen feet.
      BL-28
      Pangguangshu
      (Bladder Shu)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      Basti

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Shu/Back

      Function:
      Bladder organ
      1.5 cun lateral to the midline, at the level of the second posterior sacral foramen.

      Landmark: As the inner line of the Bladder channel on the back descends towards the sacrum, it runs closer to the midline; the 1.5 cun measurement in this area, therefore, will be relatively shorter.
      • Difficult urination, dark urination with unsmooth flow, retention of urine, enuresis, turbid painful urinary dysfunction.
      • Seminal emission, swelling and pain of the external genitals, genital ulceration, damp itching, swelling and pain of the va,pina, deficiency swelling of the penis.
      • Diarrhoea, diarrhoea with abdominal pain, difficult defecation, constipation, abdominal fullness, abdominal (jia ju) masses in women, hard abdominal (ji ju) masses, wasting and thirsting disorder, diminished qi.
      • Stiffness and pain of the sacrum and coccyx, stiffness and pain of the lumbar spine that radiates to the hypogastrium, difficulty in bending, wind-taxation lumbar stiffness and pain, stiffness and pain of the lower spine and buttock, inability to sit for long, weakness of the leg and knee, cold and contraction of the lower leg, numbness of the leg, atrophy disorder and heaviness of the leg, sciatica.
      • Regulates the Bladder
      • Clears damPC-heat from the lower jiao
      • Dispels stagnation and resolves masses
      • Benefits the lumbar region and legs
      BL-29
      Zhonglusu
      (Mid-Spine Shu)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Shu/Back

      Function:
      Center Back Muscles
      1.5 cun lateral to the midline, at the level of the third posterior sacral foramen.

      Landmark: As the inner line of the Bladder channel on the back descends towards the sacrum, it runs closer to the midline; the 1.5 cun measurement in this area, therefore, will be relatively shorter.
      • Dysenteric disorder, cold in the intestines, shan disorder, abdominal distention, pain of the lateral costal region, Kidney deficiency wasting and thirsting disorder, absence of sweating.
      • Stiffness and pain of the lumbar spine, inability to turn the spine.
      • Benefits the lumbar region
      • Dispels cold and stops diarrhoea
      BL-30
      Baihuanshu
      (White Ring Shu)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      Urinary channel,
      Menstruation channel

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Shu/Back

      Function:
      White Ring
      1.5 cun lateral to the midline, at the level of the fourth posterior sacral foramen.

      Landmark: As the inner line of the Bladder channel on the back descends towards the sacrum, it runs closer to the midline; the 1.5 cun measurement in this area, therefore, will be relatively shorter.
      • Pain of the lumbar spine and sacrum, lumbar pain due to cold, pain of the lumbar region and hip, pain of the coccyx, difficulty in sitting and standing, debility of the leg and knee, contracted sinews associated with painful obstruction.
      • Irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhoea, uterine bleeding, infertility.
      • Seminal emission, seminal emission with dreams, red and white leucorrhoea, difficult defecation and urination, prolapse of the rectum, dark urine, white turbidity, shan disorder, warm malaria.
      • Benefits the lumbar region and legs
      • Regulates menstruation
      • Stops leucorrhoea and seminal emission
      BL-31
      Shangliao
      (Upper Crevice)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      Katikataruna

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      Over the first posterior sacral foramen.
      • Difficult urination and defecation.
      • Irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhoea, infertility, leucorrhoea, incessant white leucorrhoea, red and white leucorrhoea, seminal emission, impotence, itching and pain of the genitals, uterine prolapse.
      • Vomiting, nosebleed, malarial chills and fever.
      • Lumbar pain, cold and pain of the back and knees.
      • Regulates the lower jiao and facilitates urination and defecation
      • Regulates menstruation and stops leucorrhoea
      • Benefits the lumbar region and legs
      BL-32
      Ciliao
      (Second Crevice)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      Over the second posterior sacral foramen.
      • Painful urinary dysfunction, dark urine, retention of urine, enuresis, difficulty in urination and defecation, constipation, borborygmus, watery diarrhoea, shan disorder, hardness and distention below the Heart.
      • Red and white leucorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, irregular menstruation, infertility, pain of childbirth.
      • Lumbar pain, sacral pain, numbness of the lumbar region extending down to the feet, cold sensation of the lumbar region, lumbar pain radiating to the genitals, sciatica, pain and painful obstruction of the lower limb, hemiplegia.
      • Regulates the lower jiao and facilitates urination and defecation
      • Regulates menstruation and stops leucorrhoea
      • Benefits the lumbar region and legs
      BL-33
      Zhongliao
      (Middle Crevice)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      Over the third posterior sacral foramen.
      • Difficult urination and defecation, constipation, diarrhoea containing undigested food, retention of urine, painful urinary dysfunction, abdominal distention.
      • Leucorrhoea, irregular menstruation, scanty menstruation, infertility.
      • Lumbar pain, pain and cold of the sacrum and coccyx, cold sensation of the buttocks, atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the lower limb.
      • The five taxations, the seven injuries and the six extremes.
      • Regulates the lower jiao and facilitates urination
      • and defecation
      • Regulates menstruation and stops leucorrhoea
      • Benefits the lumbar region and legs
      BL-34
      Xialiao
      (Lower Crevice)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      Over the fourth posterior sacral foramen.
      • Lower abdominal pain, borborygmus, diarrhoea, difficult defecation, constipation, blood in the stool, difficult urination, painful urinary dysfunction, shan disorder.
      • Dysmenorrhoea, itching, swelling and pain of the genitals, incessant green leucorrhoea leading to vaginal pain and pain radiating to the lower abdomen.
      • Pain of the sacrum and coccyx, lumbar pain, lumbar pain radiating to the testicles.
      • Regulates the lower jiao and facilitates urination and defecation
      • Regulates menstruation and stops leucorrhoea
      • Benefits the lumbar region and legs
      BL-35
      Huiyang
      (Meeting of Yang)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      Apana (Vaata)

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      0.5 cun lateral to the Governing vessel, level with the tip of the coccyx.
      • Diarrhoea, dysenteric disorder, blood in the stool, chronic haemorrhoids, prolapse of the rectum, itching of the genitals, sweating of the genitals, leucorrhoea.
      • Pain of the coccyx, pain of the lumbar region and leg.
      • Yang qi deficiency, impotence, cold abdomen.
      • Clears damPC-heat and regulates the lower jiao
      • Benefits the coccyx and treats haemorrhoids
      BL-36
      Chengfu
      (Hold and Support)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      Urinary channel,
      Menstruation channel

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      Just below the buttock, on a line directly superior to Weizhong UB-40, in the centre of the transverse gluteal crease in a depression between the hamstring muscles.
      • Lumbar pain, pain of the sacrum and coccyx, pain of the buttock, sciatica, painful obstruction and atrophy disorder of the lower limb.
      • Difficult defecation, difficult urination, pain of the genitals, seminal emission, cold in the uterus, swelling of the axilla.
      • Chronic haemorrhoids, bleeding haemorrhoids.
      • Activates the channel, relaxes the sinews and alleviates pain
      • Regulates the lower jiao and alleviates pain
      • Treats haemorrhoids
      BL-37
      Yinmen
      (Gate of Abundance)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      Urvi

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      On the back of the thigh, in the depression between the hamstring muscles, 6 cun distal to Chengfu UB-36, and 8 cun proximal to Weizhong UB-40, on the line connecting Chengfu UB-36 and Weizhong UB-40.

      Landmark: 1. Locate two handbreadths distal to Chengfu UB-36.
      2. Find the midpoint between Chengfu UB-36 and Weizhong UB-40 and locate Yinmen UB-37 in the depression 1 cun proximal to this.
      • Pain and rigidity of the lumbar spine, sciatica, painful obstruction and atrophy disorder of the lower limb, pain of the thigh, swelling of the lateral thigh.
      • Watery diarrhoea.
      • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
      • Benefits the lumbar spine
      BL-38
      Fuxi
      (Floating Cleft)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      On the back of the knee, 1 cun superior to Weiyang UB-39, on the medial side of the tendon of biceps femoris.

      Landmark: Locate with the knee slightly flexed
      • Numbness of the buttock, contraction of the sinews of the popliteal fossa, contraction and pain of the outer thigh, sudden turmoil disorder with cramps.
      • Small Intestine heat, knotting of the Large Intestine, hot urination.
      • Relaxes the sinews and alleviates pain
      • Clears heat and soothes contraction
      BL-39
      Weiyang
      (Outside of the Crook)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Lower He Sea

      Function:
      Triple Heater organ
      At the back of the knee, on the popliteal crease and towards its lateral end, in the depression medial to the tendon of biceps fernoris.

      Landmark: Locate with the knee slightly flexed.
      • Difficult urination, retention of urine, painful urinary dysfunction, enuresis.
      • Stiffness and pain of the lumbar spine, lumbar pain adiating to the abdomen, contraction and pain of the leg and foot.
      • Fullness of the chest, pain and swelling of the axilla, distention and fullness of the lower abdomen, haemorrhoids, constipation.
      • Harmonises the Sanjiao and regulates urination
      • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
      BL-40
      Weizhong
      (Middle of the Crook)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      Water Metabolism channel

      Part of Marma:
      Janu

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Five Shu (He-sea),
      Command,
      Lower He Sea,
      Ma Danyang/12 Star Points

      Function:
      Lumbar Region,
      Bladder organ
      At the back of the knee, on the popliteal crease, in a depression midway between the tendons of biceps femoris and semitendinosus.

      Landmark: Locate with the knee slightly flexed.
      • Pain and stiffness of the lumbar spine, heaviness of the lumbar region and buttock, cold sensation of the sacrum, coccyx and thigh, knee pain extending to the big toe, difficulty in flexing and extending the hip and knee joints, contraction of the sinews around the popliteal fossa, weakness of the legs, atrophy disorder and painful obstruction of the lower limb, wind painful obstruction, windstroke, hemiplegia.
      • Injury by summer-heat, febrile disease with absence of sweating, injury by cold with heat of the four limbs, alternating chills and fever, malaria, ceaseless thirst, sudden turmoil disorder with abdominal pain, fullness of the lower abdomen, vomiting and diarrhoea, dysenteric disorder.
      • Enuresis, difficult urination, dark urination, distention and pain of the hypogastrium.
      • Nosebleed, pain of the lower teeth, headache, throat painful obstruction, epilepsy, haemorrhoid pain.
      • Clove sores, erysipelas (cinnabar toxin), eczema, urticaria.
      • Rheumatism which returns irregularly, knee stiffness.
      • Benefits the lumbar region and knees
      • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
      • Cools the blood
      • Clears summer-heat and stops vomiting and diarrhoea
      • Benefits the Bladder
      Tibia1 nerve and the popliteal artery and vein lie deep to this point.
      BL-41
      Fufen
      (Attached Branch)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      Amsaphalaka

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      3 cun lateral to the midline, level with the lower border of the spinous process of the second thoracic vertebra (T2) and level with Fengmen UB-12

      Landmark: When the shoulder is relaxed, the three cun line corresponds to the medial border of the scapula.
      • Contraction of the shoulder, scapula and back, pain and stiffness of the neck, back pain radiating to the head, numbness of the elbow and upper arm.
      • Wind-cold lodged in the interstices, wind-taxation
      • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
      • Expels wind and cold
      Deep perpendicular or deep oblique needling in a medial direction carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
      BL-42
      Pohu
      (Door of the Corporeal Soul)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      3 cun lateral to the midline, level with the lower border of the spinous process of the third thoracic vertebra (T3) and level with Feishu UB-13.

      Landmark: When the shoulder is relaxed, the three cun line corresponds to the medial border of the scapula.
      • Lung atrophy, Lung consumption, deficiency-taxation, taxation cough with heat in the body, cough, asthma, dyspnoea, aversion to cold.
      • Pain of the shoulder, scapula and back, pain of the chest and back, stiff neck.
      • Vomiting with agitation and fullness, three corpse possession disorder, loss of consciousness.
      • Tonifies and nourishes the Lung
      • Soothes dyspnoea and alleviates cough
      • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
      Deep perpendicular or deep oblique needling in a medial direction carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
      BL-43
      Gaohuangshu
      (Vital Region Shu)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Shu/Back

      Function:
      Vital Region
      3 cun lateral to the midline, level with the lower border of the spinous process of the fourth thoracic vertebra (T4) and level with Jueyinshu UB-14.

      Landmark: When the shoulder is relaxed, the three cun line corresponds to the medial border of the scapula.
      • All kinds of deficiency, Lung deficiency-taxation, deficiency-taxation, the five taxations and the seven injuries, cough, asthma, coughing blood, night sweating, spontaneous sweating, steaming bone disorder, consumption, emaciation.
      • Poor memory, pounding of the Heart, insomnia, phlegm-fire mania.
      • Seminal emission, seminal emission with dreams, impotence.
      • Feebleness and deficiency of the Spleen and Stomach, undigested food (in the stool), oesophageal constriction, weariness of the four limbs, vomiting blood.
      • Visual dizziness, dizziness, phlegm disease, pain of the back and shoulder.
      • Tonifies and nourishes the Lung, Heart, Kidneys, Spleen and Stomach
      • Nourishes yin and clears heat
      • Calms the spirit
      • Fosters the original qi
      • Resolves phlegm
      Deep perpendicular or deep oblique needling in a medial direction carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
      BL-44
      Shentang
      (Hall of the Spirit)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      3 cun lateral to the midline, level with the lower border of the spinous process of the fifth thoracic vertebra (T5) and level with Xinshu UB-15.

      Landmark: When the shoulder is relaxed, the three cun line corresponds to the medial border of the scapula.
      • Cough, asthma, dyspnoea, fullness of the chest with rebellious qi.
      • Stiffness and pain of the back, pain of the shoulder and back that radiates to the chest, oesophageal constriction.
      • Unbinds the chest and regulates qi
      • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
      Deep perpendicular or deep oblique needling in a medial direction carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
      BL-45
      Yixi
      (Yixi)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      3 cun lateral to the midline, level with the lower border of the spinous process of the sixth thoracic vertebra (T6) and level with Dushu UB-16

      Landmark: When the shoulder is relaxed, the three cun line corresponds to the medial border of the scapula.
      • Cough, dyspnoea, febrile disease with absence of sweating, attack by wind with absence of sweating, visual dizziness, eye pain, nosebleed, malaria, headache in children whilst eating, five palms agitated and hot.
      • Pain of the shoulder, scapula and back, chest pain that radiates to the lumbar region, pain of the lateral costal region accompanied by distention and pain of the hypogastrium, pain of the lateral costal region radiating to the Heart and Lung, abdominal distention, contraction of the axilla.
      • Expels wind, clears heat and descends Lung qi
      • Invigorates qi and blood and alleviates pain
      Deep perpendicular or deep oblique needling in a medial direction carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax
      BL-46
      Geguan
      (Diaphragm Gate)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      3 cun lateral to the midline, level with the lower border of the spinous process of the seventh thoracic vertebra (T7) and level with Geshu UB-17.

      Landmark: When the shoulder is relaxed, the three cun line corresponds to the medial border of the scapula.
      • Belching, sighing, fullness and oppression of the chest and diaphragm, difficult ingestion, vomiting, vomiting blood, drooling, irregular defecation, dark urine.
      • Stiffness and pain of the spine, difficulty in bending and extending the spine, back pain with aversion to cold, pain of the body, stiffness of the joints.
      • Regulates the diaphragm, benefits the middle jiao and
      • descends rebellion
      • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
      Deep perpendicular or deep oblique needling in a medial direction carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax
      BL-47
      Hunmen
      (Gate of the Ethereal Soul)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      Brihati

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      3 curt lateral to the midline, level with the lower border of the spinous process of the ninth thoracic vertebra (T9) and level with Ganshu UB-18.

      Landmark: When the shoulder is relaxed, the three cun line corresponds to the medial border of the scapula.
      • Fullness and distention of the chest and lateral costal region, back pain, contraction of the sinews, bone and joint pain of the whole body, corpse collapse walking disorder, aversion to wind and cold.
      • Difficult ingestion, vomiting, diarrhoea, borborygmus, irregular defecation, dark urine.
      • Spreads Liver qi and relaxes the sinews
      • Harmonises the middle jiao
      BL-48
      Yanggang
      (Yang Key Link)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      3 cun lateral to the midline, level with the lower border of the spinous process of the tenth thoracic vertebra (T10) and level with Danshu UB-19.

      Landmark: When the shoulder is relaxed, the three cun line corresponds to the medial border of the scapula.
      • Heat in the body, yellow eyes and face, pain of the lateral costal region, dark and hesitant urination, indolence.
      • Abdominal pain, abdominal distention, borborygmus, diarrhoea, dysenteric disorder with blood, irregular defecation, difficult ingestion, no pleasure in eating.
      • Regulates the Gall Bladder and clears damPC-heat
      • Harmonises the middle jiao
      BL-49
      Yishe
      (Abode of Thought)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      3 cun lateral to the midline, level with the lower border of the spinous process of the eleventh thoracic vertebra (T11) and level with Pishu UB-20.

      Landmark: When the shoulder is relaxed, the three cun line corresponds to the medial border of the scapula.
      • Distention and fullness of the abdomen, distention and pain of the chest and lateral costal region, slippery diarrhoea, difficult ingestion, vomiting, reddish-yellow urine, heat in the body with yellow face and eyes.
      • Back pain, wasting and thirsting disorder, aversion to wind and cold.
      • Clears damPC-heat
      • Regulates the Spleen and Stomach
      Deep perpendicular or deep oblique needling in a medial direction carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
      BL-50
      Weicang
      (Stomach Granary)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      3 cun lateral to the midline, level with the lower border of the spinous process of the twelfth thoracicvertebra (T12) and level with WeishuUB-21.

      Landmark: When the shoulder is relaxed, the three cun line corresponds to the medial border of the scapula.
      • Abdominal fullness, deficiency distention, difficult ingestion, childhood nutritional impairment, sudden turmoil disorder, oedema.
      • Aversion to cold, much cold, back pain.
      • Harmonises the middle jiao
      Deep perpendicular or deep oblique needling in a medial direction carries a substantial risk of causing a pneumothorax.
      BL-51
      Huangmen
      (Vitals Gate)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      3 cun lateral to the midline, level with the lower border of the spinous process of the first lumbar vertebra (Ll) and level with Sanjiaoshu UB-22.

      Landmark: When the shoulder is relaxed, the three cun line corresponds to the medial border of the scapula.
      • Epigastric pain, great hardness below the Heart, constipation.
      • Breast disorders, fullness and pain of the breast.
      • Dispels stagnation and benefits the breasts
      Deep perpendicular needling carries a risk of injuring the kidney
      BL-52
      Zhishi
      (Residence of the Will)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      3 cun lateral to the midline, level with the lower border of the spinous process of the second lumbar vertebra (L2) and level with Shenshu UB-23.

      Landmark: When the shoulder is relaxed, the three cun line corresponds to the medial border of the scapula.
      • Lumbar pain and stiffness, back pain, dribbling urination, difficult urination, oedema, impotence, premature ejaculation, seminal emission with dreams, swelling and pain of the genitals.
      • Fullness and pain of the lateral costal region, sudden turmoil disorder, vomiting, difficult defecation, hardness of the abdomen and hypogastrium.
      • Tonifies the Kidneys and benefits the essence
      • Regulates urination
      • Strengthens the lumbar region
      Deep perpendicular needling carries a risk of injuring the kidney.
      BL-53
      Baohuang
      (Bladder Vitals)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      Katikataruna

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      3 cun lateral to the midline, at the level of the spinous process of the second sacral vertebra.

      Landmark: 1. When the shoulder is relaxed, the three cun line corresponds to the medial border of the scapula.
      2. Alternatively this point may be located midway between the midline and the lateral edge of the buttock, when the lateral edge is firmly pressed in with the palm of the hand.
      • Pain and stiffness of the lumbar region, sciatica.
      • Hardness and fullness of the hypogastrium, retention of urine, dribbling urination, oedema, inability to urinate or defecate.
      • Borborygmus, abdominal distention, undigested food (in the stool), aversion to wind.
      • Benefits the lumbar region, activates the channel and alleviates pain
      • Regulates the lower jiao and benefits urination
      BL-54
      Zhibian
      (Order Limit)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      Nitamba

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      On the buttock, in the depression 3 cun lateral to the sacro-coccygeal hiatus.

      Landmark: 1. The sacro-coccygeal hiatus is the depression between the bony prominences of the sacral and coccygeal cornua (just below the spinous process of the fourth sacral vertebra if this is palpable).
      2. When the shoulder is relaxed, the three cun line corresponds to the medial border of the scapula.
      3. Alternatively this point may be located midway between the midline and the lateral edge of the buttock, when the lateral edge is firmly pressed in with the palm of the hand.
      • Pain and coldness of the lumbar region and sacrum, Kidney deficiency lumbar pain, pain of the buttock, sciatica, painful obstruction and atrophy disorder of the lower limb.
      • Difficult urination, retention of urine, dark urine, difficult defecation, seminal emission, haemorrhoids, turbid leucorrhoea, pain of the genitals.
      • Benefits the lumbar region, activates the channel and alleviates pain
      • Regulates urination and treats haemorrhoids
      BL-55
      Heyang
      (Confluence of Yang)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      On the lower leg, 2 cuninferior to Weizhong UB-40, on the line connecting Weizhong UB-40 and Chengshan UB-57, in the depression between the two heads of the gastrocnemius muscle.

      Landmark: First locate Chengshan UB-57. Then locate Heyang UB-55 at one quarter of the distance between Weizhong UB-40 and Chengshan UB-57.
      • Lumbar pain radiating to the abdomen, heat sensation of the inner thigh, pain, heat and heaviness of the knees, difficulty in walking.
      • Uterine bleeding, leucorrhoea, pain of the genitals, sudden violent pain of the genitals, cold shan disorder.
      • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
      • Stops uterine bleeding and treats pain of the genitals
      BL-56
      Chengjin
      (Support the Sinews)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      On the lower leg, 5 cun below Weizhong UB-40 and midway between Heyang UB-55 and Chengshan UB-57, in the centre of the belly of the gastrocnemius muscle.

      Landmark: First locate Chengshan UB-57 then Heyang UB-55. Chengjin UB-56 is located midway between these two points.
      • Contraction and pain of the lumbar spine, painful obstruction of the lower leg, shivering with inability to stand for long, heat sensation in the soles with inability to stand for long, pain and contraction of the foot and heel, swelling of the axilla.
      • Haemorrhoids, constipation, incontinence of both urine and faeces.
      • Nosebleed, rhinitis, heat in the head, dizziness and headache, sudden turmoil disorder with cramps, clonic spasm, urticaria.
      • Relaxes the sinews, activates the channel and alleviates pain
      • Benefits the foot and heel
      BL-57
      Chenshan
      (Support the Mountain)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      Food channel

      Part of Marma:
      Indrabasti

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Ma Danyang/12 Star Points

      Function:
      NA
      On the lower leg, in the depression formed below the bellies of the gastrocnemius muscle when the muscle is flexed, approximately 8 cun distal to Weizhong UB-40, i.e. midway between Weizhong UB-40 and Kunlun UB-60.

      Landmark: Run your finger upwards from the Achilles tendon along the midline until it falls into the depression formed between the two origins of the gastrocnemius muscle bellies; this depression may be easier to palpate if you ask the patient to press the ball of their foot against the resistance of your hand.
      • Haemorrhoids, bleeding haemorrhoids, swollen and painful haemorrhoids, constipation, prolapse of the rectum.
      • Pain and stiffness of the lumbar region, sciatica, difficulty sitting and standing, inability to stand for long, cramps, pain and contraction of the sinews, leg qi with swollen knee, heavy legs, flaccidity and weakness of the leg, pain of the heel, heat sensation in the soles with inability to stand for long.
      • Shivering, malaria, sudden turmoil disorder, nosebleed, sore throat, heat in the head.
      • Severe back-pain, bowel difficulties, swollen ankles and knees, repeated or continuous tremors or aches, cramps and spasms.
      • Relaxes the sinews, activates the channel and alleviates pain
      • Benefits the calf and heel
      • Treats haemorrhoids
      BL-58
      Feiyang
      (Soaring Upwards)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Luo/Bridge

      Function:
      NA
      On the lower leg, 7 cun directly superior to Kunlun UB-60, lateral to and approximately 1 cun inferior to Chengshan UB-57.
      • Heat in the head, dizziness, visual dizziness, headache and dizziness, pain of the neck and occiput, pain of the head and back, rhinitis, rhinitis with obstruction and pain of the head and back, nosebleed, nasal congestion, mania, epilepsy.
      • Chills and fever, fever with absence of sweating, malaria, malaria with absence of thirst.
      • Lumbar pain, heaviness of the body with inability to sit or stand, shivering with inability to sit or stand for long, atrophy disorder of the lower limb, coldness of the lower part of the body, weakness of the legs, difficulty in walking, swelling and pain of the lower limb, sciatica, wind painful obstruction of the joints, inability to flex or extend the toes.
      • Haemorrhoids, swollen and painful haemorrhoids, bleeding haemorrhoids.
      • Harmonises the upper and lower
      • Expels wind from taiyang channel
      • Treats haemorrhoids
      • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
      BL-59
      Fuyang
      (Instep Yang)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      Gulpha

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Xi/Cleft

      Function:
      Yang Qiao Vessel
      On the lower leg, 3 cun directly superior to Kunlun UB-60.

      Landmark: 1. Locate one handbreadth proximal to Kunlun UB-60.
      2. This point is located in the depression between the Achilles tendon and the peroneal tendons.
      • Lumbar pain with inability to stand for long, inability to stand after sitting, thigh pain, wind painful obstruction with numbness, atrophy disorder of the lower limb, inability to raise the four limbs, heaviness and soreness of the leg and knee, sciatica, cold damp leg qi, ulceration of the leg, redness and swelling of the lateral malleolus.
      • Heavy head, chills and fever, pain of the brow, sudden turmoil disorder with cramps, clonic spasm .
      • Benefits the lumbar region and legs
      • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
      BL-60
      Kunlun
      (Kunlun Mountains)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Five Shu (Jing-river),
      Ma Danyang/12 Star Points

      Function:
      NA
      Behind the ankle joint, in the depression between the prominence of the lateral malleolus and the Achilles tendon.

      Landmark: Locate in the centre of the depression, midway between the prominence of the lateral malleolus and the posterior border of the Achilles tendon.
      • Childhood epilepsy, epilepsy, madness, lockjaw, headache, heat in the head, visual dizziness, redness pain and swelling of the eyes, bursting eye pain, pain of the upper teeth, rhinitis with nosebleed.
      • Stiff neck, contraction of the shoulder and back, Heart pain that radiates to the back, lumbar pain, sacral pain, pain of the coccyx, sciatica, pain behind the knee, ankle pain, heel pain, hemiplegia.
      • Fullness of the chest, dyspnoea, cough, malaria, malaria with copious sweating.
      • Difficult labour, retention of placenta, difficulty in conceiving, swelling of the genitals, abdominal pain, difficult defecation.
      • Spasms and pain in the tailbone, difficulty in breathing, being unable to walk or even step out, painful movement
      • Clears heat and lowers yang
      • Pacifies wind and leads down excess
      • Activates the entire Bladder channel and alleviates pain
      • Relaxes the sinews and strengthens the lumbar spine
      • Promotes labour
      Pregency
      BL-61
      Pucan
      (Servants Request)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      On the lateral side of the foot, 1.5 cun inferior to Kunlun UB-60, in a tender depression on the calcaneum.

      Landmark: The distance between the prominence of the lateral malleolus and the sole of the foot is 3 cun; locate Pucan UB-61 directly below Kunlun UB-60 and midway between this point and the sole.
      • Headache, heavy head, heaviness of the head like a stone.
      • Mania, manic raving, seeing ghosts, loss of consciousness, childhood epilepsy, vomiting, turbid painful urinary dysfunction.
      • Lumbar pain, atrophy disorder of the leg, leg qi, sudden turmoil disorder with cramps, swelling of the knee, heel pain.
      • Relaxes the sinews, activates the channel and alleviates pain
      BL-62
      Shenmai
      (Extending Vessel)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Confluent/Master,
      Confluent/Coupled,
      Ghost

      Function:
      Yang Qiao Vessel,
      Governing Vessel,
      Ghost Path
      On the lateral side of the foot, approximately 0.5 cun inferior to the inferior border of the lateral malleolus, in a depression posterior to the peroneal tendons.

      Landmark: Locate this point directly inferior to the prominence of the lateral malleolus.
      • Chills and fever, aversion to wind with spontaneous sweating and headache.
      • Wind dizziness, head wind, headache, lateral and midline headache, thunder head wind, opisthotonos, upward staring eyes, lockjaw, epilepsy, daytime epilepsy, windstroke with inability to speak and hemiplegia, deviation of the mouth, eye and face, counterflow qi.
      • Red eyes, eye pain that originates at the inner canthus, nosebleed, deafness, tinnitus.
      • Mania-depression, palpitations, Heart fright, insomnia.
      • Stiffness of the nape of the neck, stiffness and difficulty in extending the back, cold painful obstruction of the lumbar region and hip, pain of the lumbar region and leg, difficulty in extending and flexing the knee, redness and swelling of the lateral malleolus, straw shoe wind (redness, swelling and pain of the leg and foot).
      • Blood and qi pain in women,, fullness of the chest, swelling of the neck and axilla.
      • Pacifies interior wind and expels exterior wind
      • Calms the spirit and treats epilepsy
      • Benefits the head and eyes
      • Opens and regulates the Yang Motility vessel
      • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
      BL-63
      Jinmen
      (Golden Gate)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Xi/Cleft

      Function:
      NA
      On the lateral side of the foot, in the depression posterior to the tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal bone.

      Landmark: The tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal bone is the most palpable landmark on the lateral side of the foot.
      • Epilepsy, childhood fright wind, toothache, loss of consciousness.
      • Sudden and violent shan disorder, sudden turmoil disorder with cramps, malaria, shivering with inability to stand for long.
      • Lumbar pain, knee pain, painful obstruction of the lower limb, white tiger joint wind, pain of the external malleolus.
      • Pacifies wind
      • Moderates acute conditions
      • Relaxes the sinews, activates the channeland alleviates pain
      BL-64
      Jingju
      (Capital Bone)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Yuan/Base

      Function:
      NA
      On the lateral side of the foot, in the depression anterior and inferior to the tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal bone.

      Landmark: The tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal bone is the most palpable landmark on the lateral side of the foot.
      • Painful and heavy head with cold feet, splitting headache, heat in the head, shaking of the head, redness of the inner canthus, superficial visual obstruction, visual dizziness, rhinitis with ceaseless nosebleed, chills and fever, malaria, no pleasure in eating.
      • Palpitations, Heart pain, mania-depression, propensity to fright, epilepsy.
      • Stiff neck, pain of the back and sides of the body, lumbar pain, aversion to cold and pain of the back, cracked and dry feet, cold damp leg qi.
      • Clears the head and eyes and eliminates wind
      • Calms the spirit
      • Relaxes the sinews, activates the channel and alleviates pain
      BL-65
      Shugu
      (Restraining Bone)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Five Shu (Shu-stream),
      Five Element (Child)

      Function:
      NA
      On the lateral side of the foot, in the depression posterior and inferior to the head of the fifth metatarsal bone.

      Landmark: Run a finger distally along the lateral side of the foot from Jinggu UB-64 until it falls into the depression.
      • Headache, occipital headache, stiff neck, deafness, visual dizziness, redness and pain of the eyes, redness and erosion of the inner canthus, yellow eyes.
      • Chills and fever, aversion to wind and cold, heat in the body, malaria, mania-depression, carbuncular swellings on the back, clove sores on the back, haemorrhoids, diarrhoea.
      • Pain of the lumbar region and back, thigh pain.
      • Clears the head and eyes
      • Clears heat and dissipates swelling
      • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
      BL-66
      Zutonggu
      (Foot Connecting Valley)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Five Shu (Ying-spring)

      Function:
      NA
      On the lateral side of the foot, in the depression anterior and inferior to the fifth metatarso-phalangeal joint.

      Landmark: First locate Shugu UB-65, then run the finger over the prominence of the metatarso-phalangeal joint until it falls into the depression at the base of the little toe.
      • Heaviness of the head, neck pain, visual dizziness, redness of the eyes, nosebleed, sweating without aversion to cold, malaria.
      • Vomiting, undigested food (in the stool), cough and dyspnoea, fullness of the chest with congested fluids.
      • Mania, propensity to fright.
      • Clears the head
      • Descends Lung and Stomach qi
      BL-67
      Zhiyin
      (Reaching Yin)


      Meridian:
      Bladder Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Five Shu (Jing-well),
      Five Element (Mother),
      Exit

      Function:
      NA
      On the dorsal aspect of the little toe, at the junction of lines drawn along the lateral border of the nail and the base of the nail, approximately 0.1 cun from the corner of the nail.
      • Vertex headache, occipital headache, heaviness of the head, neck pain, nasal congestion, nosebleed, eye pain, pain of the inner canthus, superficial visual obstruction, deafness and tinnitus, pain of the lateral costal region and chest, agitation of the Heart.
      • Retention of placenta, malposition of foetus, delayed labour, prolonged or difficult labour.
      • Difficult urination, painful urinary dysfunction, seminal emission, cold malaria, wind cold starting from the little toe, absence of sweating, heat in the soles of the feet, cramps, clonic spasm, swelling of the knees.
      • Expels wind and clears the head and eyes
      • Turns the foetus and facilitates labour
      KD-1
      Yongquan
      (Gushing Spring)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      Talahridaya

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Five Shu (Jing-well),
      Five Element (Child),
      Entry

      Function:
      NA
      By the side of the foot, between second and third metatarsal bones, approximately one third of the distance between the base of the second toe and the heel, in a depression formed when the foot is plantar flexed.
      • Loss of consciousness from windstroke, loss of consciousness.
      • Epilepsy, childhood fright wind, dizziness, visual dizziness, cloudy vision, vertex headache, hypertension, throat painful obstruction, throat pain with inability to swallow, loss of voice, dry tongue, nosebleed, dark complexion, running piglet qi.
      • Agitation, insomnia, poor memory, propensity to fear, rage with desire to kill people, madness, Heart pain.
      • Cough, dyspnoea, vomiting and coughing blood.
      • Wind rash, sudden turmoil disorder with cramps, contracted sinews.
      • Constipation, lumbar pain with difficult defecation, difficult urination, pain in the lower abdomen in pregnant women with inability to urinate, fullness of the lower abdomen, periumbilical pain, shan disorder, infertility, impotence, disorders due to excessive sexual activity, fullness of the lateral costal region, jaundice, diminished qi.
      • Lower limb paralysis, chronic leg qi, pain and swelling of the leg, cold sensation of the feet and shins, heat in the soles of the feet, chronic pain and numbness of the foot, pain of the five toes with inability to stand.
      • Descends excess from the head
      • Calms the spirit
      • Revives consciousness and rescues yang
      KD-2
      Rangu
      (Blazing Valley)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Five Shu (Ying-spring)

      Function:
      NA
      On the medial side of the foot, distal and inferior to the medial malleolus, in the depression distal and inferior to the navicular tuberosity.

      Landmark: The navicular tuberosity is the prominence found superior to the midpoint between the ball of the foot and the heel.
      • Throat painful obstruction, insufficient saliva to moisten the throat, inability to speak, spontaneous sweating, night sweating, asthma, dyspnoea, diminished qi, coughing blood, wasting and thirsting disorder, jaundice, protrusion of the tongue, fearful as if about to be apprehended, propensity to fear and fright, stabbing Heart pain.
      • Itching of the genitals, nocturnal emissions, seminal emission, impotence, infertility, uterine prolapse, irregular menstruation, shan disorder, difficult urination, cold or damp (dong) diarrhoea.
      • One foot hot and one foot cold, pain of the lower legs which prevents standing for long, pain and swelling of the instep, restless feet.
      • Clears deficiency heat
      • Regulates the Kidneys
      • Regulates the lower jiao
      KD-3
      Taixi
      (Supreme Stream)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Five Shu (Shu-stream),
      Yuan/Base

      Function:
      NA
      In the depression between the medial malleolus and the Achilles tendon, level with the prominence of the medial malleolus.

      Landmark: Locate in the centre of the depression, midway between the prominence of the medial malleolus and the posterior border of the Achilles tendon.
      • Deafness, tinnitus, headache and dizziness, toothache, nosebleed, sore throat, heat sensation in the mouth, phlegm in the mouth that feels like glue, wasting and thirsting disorder, hot disease with copious sweating, chronic malaria, emaciation.
      • Cough, coughing blood, cough with no pleasure in eating, wheezing, dyspnoea, asthma, chest pain.
      • Insomnia, excessive dreaming, poor memory, heat sensation in the palms, stabbing pain in the Heart.
      • Seminal emission, impotence, premature ejaculation, sexual taxation, irregular menstruation.
      • Frequent and copious urination, enuresis, heat in the hypogastrium with yellow urine, abdominal distention, difficult defecation, cold shan disorder, damp itchy skin lesions on the inner thigh.
      • Lumbar pain, pain of the abdomen and lateral costal region, injury by cold with inversion counterflow of the hands and feet, coldness of the lower limbs, numbness and pain of the legs, swelling and pain of the ankle, swelling and pain of the heel.
      • Nourishes Kidney yin and clears deficiency heat
      • Tonifies Kidney yang
      • Anchors the qi and benefits the Lung
      • Strengthens the lumbar spine
      KD-4
      Dazhong
      (Great Bell)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Luo/Bridge

      Function:
      NA
      Approximately 0.5 cun posterior to the midpoint of the line drawn between Taixi KD-3 and Shuiquan KD-5, on the anterior border of the Achilles tendon.

      Landmark: First locate Shuiquan KD-5, 1 cun directly inferior to Taixi KD-3, then locate Dazhong KD-4 halfway between and 0.5 cun posterior to these two points.
      • Coughing blood, dyspnoea due to diminished qi, aschma, wheezing, rattling sound in the throat, cough, shortness of breath, distention and oppression of the chest and abdomen, vomiting.
      • Heat in the mouth, dry tongue, painful throat with difficulty in swallowing.
      • Palpitations, agitation of the Heart with fullness and vomiting, agitation, dementia, mental retardation, somnolence, propensity to anger, fright, fear and unhappiness, desire to close the door and remain at home.
      • Constipation with distended abdomen, difficult urination, dribbling and retention of urine, malaria with much cold and little heat, irregular menstruation.
      • Stiffness and pain of the lumbar region, pain and swelling of the heel.
      • Reinforces the Kidneys
      • Anchors the qi and benefits the Lung
      • Strengthens the will and dispels fear
      KD-5
      Shuiquan
      (Water Spring)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Xi/Cleft

      Function:
      NA
      1 cun inferior to Taixi KD-3 in a depression anterior and superior to the calcaneal tuberosity (the site of insertion of the Achilles tendon into the calcaneum).
      • Amenorrhoea, irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhoea, delayed menstruation with oppression and pain below the Heart on onset of menstruation, prolapse of the uterus.
      • Cloudy vision, short sightedness, abdominal pain, difficult urination, dribbling urination.
      • Regulates the Penetrating and Conception vessels and benefits menstruation
      KD-6
      Zhaohai
      (Shining Sea)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Confluent/Master,
      Confluent/Coupled

      Function:
      Yin Qiao Vessel,
      Conception Vessel
      1 cun below the prominence of the medial malleolus, in the groove formed by two ligamentous bundles

      Landmark: This point lies between the tibialis posterior tendon anteriorly and the flexor digitorurn longus tendon posteriorly. These tendons may be highlighted by flexing and inverting the foot.
      • Swelling and pain of the throat, dry throat, plumstone qi (globus hystericus).
      • Redness and pain of the eyes originating at the inner canthus, vision disturbed by seeing spots and stars, head wind, dizziness.
      • Insomnia, somnolence, night-time epilepsy, sadness, fright, nightmares, five palms agitated and hot.
      • Frequent urination, enuresis, dribbling urination in women, blood painful urinary dysfunction, oedema, constipation.
      • Irregular menstruation, amenorrhoea, dysmenorrhoea, chronic cold of the uterus leading to infertility, difficult labour, persistent flow of lochia, postpartum dizziness, post-partum pain in the umbilical region, red and white leucorrhoea, uterine prolapse.
      • Itching of the genitals, sudden involuntary erection, seminal emission, shan disorder, hypogastric pain.
      • Hot or cold sensation in the lower abdomen, sudden turmoil disorder, distention and fullness of the chest and abdomen, oppressive sensation of the body.
      • Tightness and contraction of the inner aspect of the leg, weariness or pain of the four limbs, cold damp leg qi, deficiency in the elderly, cramps of the feet and hands, hemiplegia.
      • Benefits the throat
      • Nourishes the Kidneys and clears deficiency heat
      • Regulates the Yin Motility vessel
      • Calms the spirit
      • Regulates the lower jiao
      KD-7
      Fuliu
      (Returning Current)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Five Shu (Jing-river),
      Five Element (Mother)

      Function:
      NA
      On the medial aspect of the lower leg, in the depression 2 cun superior to Taixi KD-3, on the anterior border of the Achilles tendon.
      • Oedema, the five types of oedema, swelling of the four limbs with drum distention, swelling of the lower limb, difficult urination, dark urine, the five types of painful urinary dysfunction, blood painful urinary dysfunction.
      • Spontaneous sweating, night sweating, ceaseless sweating, fever with absence of sweating.
      • Diarrhoea, distention of the abdomen with borborygmus, dysenteric disorder, pus and blood in the stool, heavy feeling in the rectum after diarrhoea, bleeding haemorrhoids, constipation.
      • Dry tongue and parched mouth, dry tongue with Stomach heat, curled tongue with inability to speak, pain in the nostrils, nosebleed, tooth decay, withered yellow complexion, propensity to anger with incessant talking, propensity to laughter.
      • Seminal emission, menorrhagia, uterine bleeding.
      • Pain of the lumbar region, lumbar pain due to qi stagnation, atrophy disorder of the leg, cold legs, pulseless syndrome, cold and hot bones.
      • Benefits the Kidneys
      • Regulates the water passages and treats oedema
      • Regulates sweating
      • Drains damp and clears damPC-heat
      • Strengthens the lumbar region
      KD-8
      Jiaoxin
      (Exchange Belief)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Xi/Cleft

      Function:
      Yin Qiao Vessel
      On the medial aspect of the lower leg, 2 cun superior to Taixi KD-3 and 0.5 cun anterior to Fuliu KD-7, posterior to the medial border of the tibia.
      • Uterine bleeding, irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhoea, amenorrhoea, uterine prolapse.
      • Swelling and pain of the testicles, itching of the genitals, sweating of the genitals, shan disorder, night sweating.
      • Diarrhoea, dysenteric disorder, difficult defecation or urination, retention of urine, the five types of painful urinary dysfunction, qi painful urinary dysfunction.
      • Lumbar pain, pain of the inner aspect of the leg.
      • Regulates the Conception and Penetrating vessels and adjusts menstruation
      • Stops uterine bleeding
      • Clears heat and drains damp from the lower jiao
      KD-9
      Zhubin
      (Guest House)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      Xi/Cleft

      Function:
      Yin Wei Vessel
      On the medial aspect of the lower leg, 5 cun superior to Taixi KD-3, on the line drawn between Taixi KID3 and Yingu KD-10, about 1 cun posterior to the medial border of the tibia.

      Landmark: Locate at the junction of the lower third and upper two thirds of the distance between Taixi KD-3 and Yingu KD-10. Note that this point is on the same level as Ligou LV-5.
      • Madness, mania, mania depression disorder, raving, fury and cursing, vomiting of foamy (watery) saliva, tongue thrusting, goitre.
      • Shan disorder, umbilical shan disorder in infants.
      • Pain of the medial aspect of the leg, contraction of the calf muscle, weakness of the legs.
      • Clears the Heart and transforms phlegm
      • Regulates qi and alleviates pain
      KD-10
      Yingu
      (Yin Valley)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      Shleshaka (Kapha)

      Category:
      Five Shu (He-sea)

      Function:
      NA
      At the medial end of the popliteal crease, between the semitendinosus and semimembranosus tendons. Locate and needle with the knee slightly flexed.

      Landmark: 1. In order to accentuate the tendons, ask the patient to tighten the hamstrings.
      2. The tendon of semitendinosus, which lies posteriorly to semimembranosus, is the most prominent of the two tendons.
      • Difficult urination, urgency of urination with pain radiating to the thigh, pain on urination, dark urine, diarrhoea.
      • Impotence, pain of the genitals, itchmg of the scrotum.
      • Shan disorder, hypogastric pain radiating to the genitals and inner thigh, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, periumbilical pain.
      • Uterine bleeding, leucorrhoea, difficult conception.
      • Manic disorders, mania-depression, protrusion of the tongue with drooling.
      • Drilling knee pain with immobility, pain of the inner aspect of the thigh.
      • Clears damPC-heat from the lower jiao
      • Benefits the Kidneys
      • Activates the channel and alleviates pain
      KD-11
      Henggu
      (Pubic Bone)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      Vitapa

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      On the lower abdomen, 5 cun below the umbilicus, at the superior border of the symphysis pubis, 0.5 cun lateral to the midline (Qugu CV-2).

      Landmark: The Great Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion locates the points Henggu KD-11 to Shangqu KD-17 one cun lateral to the midline.
      • Seminal emission, impotence, deficiency and exhaustion of the five zang with seminal emission, enuresis, retention of urine, the five types of painful urinary dysfunction, pain of the genitals, painful retraction of the genitals, shan disorder, hypogastric pain, redness of the eyes originating at the inner canthus.
      • Uterine prolapse, prolapse of the rectum.
      • Benefits the lower jiao
      Deep insertion will penetrate a full bladder which should therefore be emptied before treatment
      KD-12
      Dahe
      (Great Luminance)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      On the lower abdomen, 4 cun below the umbilicus, 1 cun superior to the superior border of the symphysis pubis, 0.5 cun lateral to the midline (Zhongji CV-3). See location note for Henggu KD-11.
      • Pain of the genitals, pain of the penis, retraction of the penis, impotence, seminal emission, deficiency-taxation leucorrhoea, red leucorrhoea, uterine prolapse, redness of the eye oripating at the inner canthus.
      • Tonifies the Kidneys and astringes essence
      Deep insertion will penetrate a full bladder which should therefore be emptied before treatment.
      KD-13
      Qixue
      (Qi Cave)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      On the lower abdomen, 3 cun below the umbilicus, 2 cun superior to the superior border of the symphysis pubis, 0.5 cun lateral to the midline (Guanyuan CV-4). See location note for Henggu KD-11.
      • Amenorrhoea, irregular menstruation, uterine bleeding, leucorrhoea, infertility in women.
      • Difficult urination, incessant diarrhoea, abdominal pain, running piglet qi, rushing sensation up and down the lumbar spine, lumbar pain, redness of the eye originating at the inner canthus.
      • Regulates the Penetrating and Conception vessels
      • Regulates the lower jiao
      Deep insertion will penetrate a full bladder which should therefore be emptied before treatment
      KD-14
      Siman
      (Four Fullnesses)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      On the lower abdomen, 2 cun below the umbilicus, 3 cun superior to the superior border of the symphysis pubis, 0.5 cun lateral to the midline (ShimenCV-5). See location note for Henggu KD-11.
      • Lower abdominal pain, abdominal distention, shan disorder, cutting pain below the umbilicus, stone oedema of the upper abdomen, oedema, running piglet qi, pain of the Kidneys.
      • Irregular menstruation, uterine bleeding, malign blood with acute pain, accumulated cold in the uterus, infertility, leucorrhoea, retention of lochia, seminal emission, white and turbid urethral discharge.
      • Dysenteric disorder, diarrhoea, water in the Large Intestine, constipation; cold shivering pain of both costal regions, redness and pain of the inner canthus.
      • Benefits the lower jiao and alleviates pain
      • Regulates qi and moves blood stasis
      • Regulates the water passages and promotes urination
      Deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
      KD-15
      Zhongzhu
      (Middle Flow)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      On the lower abdomen, 1 cun below the umbilicus,.4 cun superior to the superior border of the symphysis pubis, 0.5 cun lateral to the midline (Yinjiao CV-7). See location note for Henggu KD-11.
      • Constipation, dry stools, diarrhoea, dysenteric disorder, sensation of heat in the lower abdomen, irregular menstruation, redness and pain of the inner canthus.
      • Pain of the lumbar spine and abdomen, rushing sensation up and down the lumbar spine.
      • Regulates the intestines
      • Regulates the lower jiao
      deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
      KD-16
      Huangshu
      (Vitals Shu)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      On the abdomen, 0.5 cun lateral to the centre of the umbilicus. See location note for Henggu KD-11
      • Constipation, dry stools, borborygmus, diarrhoea, vomiting, the five types of painful urinary dysfunction, redness and pain of the eye originating at the inner canthus.
      • Pain of the epigastrium and abdomen, cold in the epigastrium, distention and pain of the abdomen, cutting pain of the abdomen, shan disorder due to cold.
      • Regulates qi and alleviates pain
      • Regulates and warms the intestines
      Deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity.
      KD-17
      Shangqu
      (Shang Bend)


      Meridian:
      Kidney Meridian

      Chakra:
      NA
      Srotas:
      NA

      Part of Marma:
      NA

      Subdosha:
      NA

      Category:
      NA

      Function:
      NA
      On the upper abdomen, 2 cun above the umbilicus, 0.5 cun lateral to the midline (Xiawan CV-10). See location note for Henggu KD-11
      • Abdominal (ji ju) masses with periodic cutting pain, intestinal pain with lack of appetite, redness and pain of the eye originating at the inner canthus.
      • Vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation
      • Dispels accumulation and alleviates pain
      deep needling may penetrate the peritoneal cavity
      KD-18
      Shiguan
      (Stone Pass)