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Homeopathic medicine is a medical philosophy and practice based on the idea that the body can heal itself. Homeopathy was founded in the late 1700s by a German physician Samuel Hahnemann and has been widely practiced throughout Europe. Homeopathic medicine views symptoms of illness as normal responses of the body as it attempts to regain health. It is based on the idea that "like cures like."

Chemical Composition

Homeopathic remedies are derived primarily from minerals, plants, and animals. But a homeopathic remedy could be prepared from any substance through a process called "potentization," the original substances are transformed into sub-molecular preparations, enhancing their healing properties while eliminating toxicity. Potentization involves the repeated dilution and vigorous shaking (succussion) of a substance to eliminate its toxic effects and amplify its healing properties. If a substance is insoluble (e.g., a metal), it is ground (triturated) with lactose in the early stages until it becomes soluble.

Homeopathy cannot be understood as a substance-based method, such as drug medicine or herbalism, where any healing effect is due to chemical reactions. A simple calculation shows that in higher potencies, not a single molecule of the original substance will be present.

The explanation is that every natural substance has an etheric field around its molecular structure. The shaking action or potentizing used in homeopathy separates the etheric fields from their material substance. The latter is then discarded and the former concentrated. These concentrated etheric fields are much more potent in this way than when they were combined with the matter. The power of homeopathy lies in the fact that water has a memory, and secondly, when water is rotated in a circular motion, it creates a vortex which in turn structures the water. So if there is a substance in the water, it would store its qualities in its memory. Due to their energetic nature, homeopathic remedies are stored in the dark, away from magnetic, electronic, and electrical equipment.

How Homeopathic Remedies are prepared

  1. Select the substance (mineral, plant, animal, or anything) from which homeopathic remedy will be prepared.
  2. Preparation of Mother Tincture (Ø): Substance is soaked in distilled water or alcohol (between 60% to 70% concentration) using a cold maceration process. If the substance doesn''t dissolve, it is finely ground with lactose until it becomes soluble. The resulting mixture of the substance and water/alcohol is called a mother tincture. This mother tincture can be prescribed as medicine or used as a starting material for preparing homeopathic dilutions.
  3. Potentization: It involves a step-by-step dilution and succussion (vigorous, rhythmic shaking with impact). The previous dilution is used to create the next stage. For example, to make a 1C dilution, 1 part of the mother tincture is mixed with 99 parts of alcohol and succussing 20 times. To make a 2C dilution, 1 part of the 1C dilution is mixed with 99 parts of alcohol and succussing 20 times.

Potency: It represents how many times the potentization step was repeated, and it gives us a sense of how diluted the labelled substance is. This is done in serial sequence, amplifying the dilution, and is known as "serial dilution". This "serial dilution" is done in the same glass vial or different (represented by H or K). The  For example, a 2C dilution is prepared from a 1C preparation, and so on; therefore, each step exponentially dilutes the original substance, with the number indicating how many times this process was repeated.

Scale or Dilution Ratio:

  • Decimal (X): It involves diluting 1 part of the mother tincture or previous potency in 9 parts of a water/alcohol.
  • Centesimal (C): It involves diluting 1 part of the mother tincture or previous potency in 99 parts of a water/alcohol.
  • 50 Millesimal (LM or Q): It is a special case, it does not involve simple dilution of 1 part of mother tincture or previous potency in XXX parts of water/alcohol. It involves special techniques as defined by Hahnemann during his last years.

Method used

Sometimes H or K is appended to X/C/M/Q potencies to indicate the method used to create the remedy.

  • H indicates that the medicine was prepared using the Hahnemann method. In this method, a new flask is obtained after preparing 1X or 1C. In the new flask, 9 drops of alcohol (for X) or 99 drops of alcohol (for C) are added along with 1 drop from the older flask containing 1X or 1C. The mixture is then succussed. Each dilution step uses a new flask.
  • K indicates medicine prepared using Korsakovian Method. After preparing 1X or 1C, contents of flask are discarded. Then, 9 drops of alcohol (for X) or 99 drops (for C) are added, followed by succussion. In this method, it is assumed that at-least one-drop will remain in the flask even after discarding the solution.

Here are some examples, which will help you understand all the above:

Potency ScaleDilution FactorSuccession on each stepBaseExamples
X1:1020Mother Tincture

  • 1X: Mix 1 part of mother tincture and 9 parts of alcohol/water.
  • 2X: Mix 1 part of 1X and 9 parts of alcohol/water.
  • 6X: Mix 1 part of 5X and 9 parts of alcohol/water.
  • ...
C1:10020Mother Tincture

  • 1c: Mix 1 part of mother tincture and 99 parts of alcohol/water.
  • 2c: Mix 1 part of 1C and 99 parts of alcohol/water.
  • 6c: Mix 1 part of 5C and 99 parts of alcohol/water.
  • 1,000c (1M): Mix 1 part of 999C and 99 parts of alcohol/water.
  • 10,000c (10M): Mix 1 part of 9999C and 99 parts of alcohol/water.
  • 50,000c (50M): Mix 1 part of 49,999C and 99 parts of alcohol/water.
  • 100,000c (1CM): Mix 1 part of 99,999C and 99 parts of alcohol/water.
  • 1,000,000c (1MM): Mix 1 part of 999,999C and 99 parts of alcohol/water.
  • ...
Potencies of 1000C and above are usually labeled with the Roman numeral M and with the centesimal 'C' indicator implied (since all such high potencies are centesimal dilutions): 1M = 1000c; 10M = 10,000c; CM = 100,000c; LM (which would indicate 50,000c) is typically not used because of confusion with the LM potency scale.

LM1:50,0001003C trituration powder

  • 1LM: To prepare the LM scale, we start with 3c trituration powder. A small amount (0.06gm) of this powder is dissolved in 30ml (500 drops) of 20% alcohol, resulting in a 1:500 dilution. One drop of this solution is further diluted in 99 drops of 95% alcohol, filling two-thirds of a glass vial, giving a (1 in 500 x 100 =50,000) solution of the 3c. This creates a 1LM solution, which is obtained by succussing the vial 100 times.
  • 2LM: The 1LM liquid is poured onto poppy-seed granules. Each granule weighs 1 grain (0.06gm), and one drop of the 1LM liquid can wet at least 500 granules. One granule absorbs at least a 500th of a drop. When this granule is dissolved in a drop of water and mixed with 99 drops of alcohol, the resulting 2LM solution contains 1/50,000th of the previous 1LM liquid. The 2LM liquid is succussed 100 times as well.
  • ...

How Homeopathic Remedies are labelled

The homeopathic remedies are labelled by the substance used, dilution stage, potency scale, and method used to prepare the remedy. e.g "Chamomilla 6CH"; it means:

  • Chamomilla: The original substance is the plant Chamomilla.
  • 6: It represents how many times the potentization step was repeated.
  • C: It represents the dilution ratio and scale. Possible values are: X/C/LM
  • H: It represents the method used. Possible values are: H or K.

General Tips for using Potencies

  • 3X/6X/12X: These are the Scaffolding Builders often sold as cell salts. They work to support the organs and repair and restore cellular deficiencies. It can be repeated frequently.
  • 6C/12C/18C: These potencies act directly on the physical body with less effect at the emotional level. Use when the picture is unclear. These can be repeated frequently.
  • 30C: These potencies are considered middle-of-the-road potency 30C, which works well on the physical level with enough depth to access the mind and emotions.
  • 200C: Often called for in acute situations, this Cannon-Fire potency is used where symptoms move with speed and intensity with direct action on the physical but will also the psyche.
  • Potencies higher than 200C should not be taken without proper knowledge.
  • Special Potencies: There are some potencies that have special effect on body, these interfere less with each other. These special potencies are of 2 types: (1) Potencies at 1M and higher, (2) Neutral potencies: 6X, 6C, 12X, 12C, 200X, 200C, 10MM (best). One can combine multiple remedies into one formula by using these special potencies. This is the reason most of the homeopathic combinations have lower potencies.

Different branches of Homeopathic Remedies
Depending upon the raw-material/substance that is used to prepare the mother-tincture, one can categorize the types of homeopathic remedies. Here is the list of some branches:

Cell Salts

In the late nineteenth century, Dr. W. H. Schuessler originated a therapeutic system he called biochemical medicine, based on 12 essential cell salts or tissue salts; these are homeopathic preparations of mineral salts usually present in the body. These cell salts may be used individually or in combination.


Sometimes a product of a disease is used in potentized form for treating the same condition; this is called isopathy.


A nosode is a homeopathic preparation made from matter from a sick animal or person. Substances such as respiratory discharges or diseased tissues are used. It sounds repulsive, but the practice of using alcohol and repeated dilution and succussion essentially renders the substances harmless while producing a powerful remedy.


Organ therapy / Organotherapy / Sarcodes - refer to the homeopathic potency of organs or glands to support and regulate the organs and glands of the body. Organ therapy is effective in helping the body function in a healthy balanced manner. This therapy supports the organ's function by improving the absorption of enzymes and certain nucleic acids lacking in the organ.  Organ therapy is known for helping to regulate body organs to function in a normal and healthy way. Organotherapy uses organs, glands, and tissues obtained from healthy animals. e.g., Lungs, Liver, Pancreas, etc. 

Organotherapy, the use of Sarcodes, works on the premise that:

  1. A homeopathic gland acts upon its corresponding gland.
  2. Low Potencies such as 6X or 12X stimulate corresponding gland or organ function and are used for a low-functioning gland or organ.
  3. Medium potency 6C is the most frequently used because it balances, supports, and regulates corresponding gland or organ function.
  4. Medium-high potencies such as 30C or 200C help with over functioning of the gland or organ.

Further Reading:
  • Facial Diagnosis Of Cell Salt Deficiencies By David R Card
  • Biochemic System Of Medicine By Dr George W Carey
  • Zodiac And Salts Of Salvation By George W Carey
  • The Four Elements in Homeopathy By Misha Norland